## Islamic Glossary

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### A

#### Aal (آل)

The word aal means kinsfolk or family. For example, Aali Mohammed(PBUH&HP) means the family of Mohammed.

#### Aamil (عامل)

A 'amil is a worker.

#### Aauzu (أعوذ)

Aauzu (better spelt audhu) is used in popular Islamic phrases like audhu billah minashaitanir rajeem. The word is translated to mean 'I seek refuge', or 'I seek protection'.

#### Ab (أب)

Ab or Abb means Father.

#### Abayah (عباية)

The Abayah is a long cloak that women wear. Depending on how it is worn and how long it is, it suffices as a suitable hijab and dress on its own if it covers the head (except the face) and the body (except the hands) properly.

See Ab.

#### Abd (عبد)

Servant/Slave. eg. the name Abdullah means servant of Allah.

#### Abdul (عبد ال)

The word Abdul alone doesn't mean anything much. Alone it means 'servant/slave of' and features as the first part of a name. Usually the word features an additional word after it - for example Abdul Rahman, a popular boy's name, means servant/slave of the all Merciful (God).

#### Abdullah (عبدالله)

The name Abdullah means servant of Allah. It was the name of the Prophet Muhammed's (PBUH&HP) father.

#### Abel (هابيل)

Abel is one of the sons of Prophet Adam (PBUH). He is known as Habeel in Arabic. His brother was called Cain (Qabeel).

#### Abiha (ابيها)

Abiha (pronounced Abeeha), means "Her Father". Fatima (PBUH), the daughter of the Prophet Mohammed (PBUH&HP), was nicknamed Umm Abiha (Her father's Mother) by him because she used to care about and look after him so much.

#### Ablution (وضوء)

Ablution is an English word that means 'washing or wiping parts of the body with water as part of a religious rite'. The Arabic word for this is Wudhu. Wudhu is a rite done to prepare for prayer or reading the Quran, or to remain in the state of purity.

#### Ablution(washing before the Pray):

ritual ablution (a spiritual wash of the face and hands before Salat ,Ablution is obligatory and performed before prayer, wudū)

#### Abomination

filth, sin (is something that is not clean, najis)

#### Abraham (‏إبراهيم)

Prophet Abraham, he is one of the closest Prophets to Allah.

Abraham was the "Close One to Allah" Who preferred him over many others and selected him to be a messenger. Though brought up in a pagan community that worshiped idols, Abraham refused to do so and realized that there must be a greater god of the universe. Allah guided him to the right path and revealed His message to him. He then directed his mission to his people, and called on them to renounce idolatry. He was answered with stubborn refusals. They plotted against him but their schemes were in vain, for Allah, the Almighty, provided support and protection to His servant and prophet, Abraham. Abraham was the forefather of a line of prophets through his two sons Ishmael and Isaac. It was Abraham who began the construction of the Kabah with the help of his son Ishmael.

In Quranic Arabic the word ibraheem is spelt differently to how it is spelt in modern Arabic. It is spelt without a 'ya' character: إبراهم

#### Abstinence

abstinence (abstention from some foods)

#### Abu (أبو)

(1) Abu means Father or 'Father of ...'. For example, 'Abu Ahmed' means Father of Ahmed. In Arab countries most people are called Abu X, (where X is the name of the first son or daughter,) by people who know them, instead of their official name.
(2) Abu can also mean 'possessor of X', where X can be an attribute or a distinct object. For example the name Abu Huraira means 'Possessor of Cats'.

Also of interest to you may be the word Umm.

Abu Huraira (RA) is one of the most well known Hadith transmitters and Sahabah. He has transmitted an incredible number of hadiths.

#### Abu Bakr (أبو بكر)

Abu Bakr is the name of one of the most famous Sahabah (companions of Prophet Muhammed) and he became the first Khalif (leader) after the death of the Prophet (SAW).

#### Abu Talib (أبو طالب)

Abu Talib (RA) is the most famous uncle of Prophet Muhammed (SAW), and is the father of Imam Ali (AS), the Prophet's cousin. Abu Talib adopted Muhammed in youth when his granddad (Abdul Mutalib) died, and he continued to protect him from his (the Prophet's) enemies. Abu Talib (RA) continued to protect the Prophet until he died. Sunnis and Shia debate on whether or not he died a Muslim.

White.

#### Acknowledgement of one's deeds

Affirmation [affirmation of one's sins (deeds)]

#### Acquired Consensus

Acquired unanimity (who have  been with the infallibles and used their deeds as reference for their deeds.)

Islamic Manners. These are derived from Sunnah, but are usually taught by the parents. If someone's manners are bad, it is probably the fault of the parents.

The name of the first man on Earth and the first Prophet. It is also a commonly used Muslim name.

adhab means punishment or torture.

The call to prayer, recited before prayers commence. It is done to make people aware that the salat (prayers) are about to begin. There are variations in the call to prayer in each of the sects and madhhabs.
Translation:
God is most great. God is most great.
God is most great. God is most great.
I testify that there Is no god except God.
I testify that there is no god except God.
I testify that Muhammad is the messenger of God.
I testify that Muhammad Is the messenger of God.
Come to prayer! Come to prayer!
Come to success (In this life and the Hereafter)! Come to success!
God is most great. God is most great.
There is no god except God.

Virgin. The mother of Christ (AS),(PBUH), is called Maryam al-adhra - The Virgin Mary.

Adil is a popular boy's name. The word means 'fair' or 'just'.

Many supplication and Invocations to Allah - asking favours to Him.

Fairness and Justness. A person who has these characteristics is known as an 'adil' person. Adil is a popular boy's name.

to warn, to advise (to give advice or counsel)

prostration (the act of prostration in the Salat, when seven portions of the body touch the earth: the forehead on pure ground, two palms, two knees, and the two big toes. The two Sajdahs together are called sajdatain.)

Enemy.

Adyan is the plural of deen (religion).

#### Affectionate, Compassionate, Kind, Merciful

kind (to have kindness to othersو showing affection)

#### Afwen (عفواً)

Afwen means sorry. Another word for sorry is 'Al-afoo'.

The Arabic shown is for afwen.

#### Agathology

A science that explaines the virtues of ethics.

#### Age (عمر)

The Arabic word for age is 'Umur'.

#### Agricultural Partnerships

Contract of farm letting (leasing the land and receiving part of its products in return)

One. Often this word is used in reference to the oneness of Allah (God).

#### Ahkam (احكام)

Laws or orders. There are six types in Islam:
1. Compulsory (Wajib)
2. Order without obligation (Mustahab)
3. Forbidden (Muharram)
4. Disliked but not forbidden (Makruh)
5. Legal and allowed (Halal)
6. no law defined/required (Mubah)

Most clerics and teachers will only state the first 5 of the laws. The sixth one is essential because it asserts the fact that some things are ambiguous and doesn't neccessarily.

#### Ahlan Wa Sahlan (اهلاً و سهلاً)

This is a phrase used in welcoming guests. It is a very old Arab greeting.

#### Ahlulbayt (أهل البيت)

Ahlulbayt are the family of Prophet Muhammed (SAW). They hold a special place in the hearts of the Mu'mineen (devout believers). There is some disagreement upon who qualifies to be a member of his household - are the wives of the Prophet included or not? Nonetheless, the definite members of the household are:
(1) The Prophet Muhammed himself,
(2) Ali (Cousin of the Prophet, and husband to his daughter),
(3) Fatimah (Daughter of the Prophet, and wife of Ali),
(4) Hassan (Son of Ali and Fatimah),
(5) Hussain (Son of Ali and Fatimah).
May Allah's blessings be bestowed upon them.

Fool or idiot.

#### Ahzab (أحزاب)

Many parties - political usually.

Eye or source.

#### Aisha (عائشه)

Aisha is the name of one of Prophet Mohammed's (SAW) wives, and she is the daughter of one of the Prophet's companions - Abu Bakr.

Aisha is a common name for Muslim girls and it means 'living'.

The Prophet married her when she was young. Her age is not fully agreed upon but most people say she married at the age of 9.

#### Aiwa

This slang Arabic word means 'Yes'. It is commonly used in Egypt.

#### Ajmaeen (أجمعين)

Ajmaeen means 'All of Them'.

#### Ajr (أجر)

When a good deed or action is done, a Muslim gets 'ajr' for doing it. Ajr (or ajur) is also known as thawab, and it is like a 'plus' point. 'Plus' points are compared to 'negative' (ithim) points when someone is judged by God after the person dies. If a person has more thawab than ithim then they will enter heaven.

#### Ajzaa (اجزاء)

Ajzaa is the plural of juzuu. It means 'parts' (usually of the Quran, which is split into 30).

See Introduction to the Quran for more details.

#### Akbar (أكبر)

(1) Akbar can mean 'The greatest' and is often found in the phrase Allahu Akbar: God is the Greatest.
(2) Akbar can mean 'Greater than'; E.g. Sitah akbar min khamsa, Six is greater than five.

#### Akh (أخ)

Brother. (Not necessarily by blood).

See Akhi.

#### Akhi (أخي)

Means 'my brother'. The 'i' on the end changes the attributes of the word akh (brother) to be yours.

#### Akhira (الآخره)

See Al Akhirah.
The word akhirah means end, or ending.

Manners.

#### Akhu (أخو)

Akhu is a valid word.

#### Akhuk (اخوك)

Akhuk means 'Your brother'.

#### Akika

Akika (offering a sacrifice to win the favor of God)

#### Al (ال)

"The", or "of the".

It is used before most words. In English it is normal to list things: sun, moon, dog and cat; but in Arabic it is written A-shams, Al-Qamar, Al-Kelb, Al-Qitah.

This is used a lot like 'le' or 'la' in the French language. It's placing in a sentence is similar. Le Lit (The Bed) - Al-Firash.
But there are some words that use 'A' without including the 'l' or use 'As'. eg. A-Shams (The Sun) or As-Samaa (The Sky).

#### Al Akhirah (الآخره)

Al-Akhira refers to The Last day which is Judgment day. This day every person will be called to account for their actions during life before a judgment is passed to whether they enter heaven, hell or limbo.

#### Al Amin (الأمين)

Al Amin (or Al Ameen) was one of the nick-names given to the Prophet Muhammed (SAW). It means 'The trustworthy', and the Prophet was well known by the people for this trait, and he was implicitly trusted by all.

#### Al Fatiha (الفاتحه)

Al Fatiha - 'The Opening (Chapter)'. This is the name of first Surah (chapter) in the Quran.

#### Al Quds (القدس)

Al Quds is the Arabic name for the town of Jerusalem, Palestine. The word Quds is derived from a word meaning Holy.

#### Alaikum (عليكم)

This word means 'upon you', but it is usually found with a word preceding it, especially the word assalamu so it is 'assalamu alaikum' - peace be upon you.

#### Alan (آلان)

Alan is an English name meaning 'Handsome one'.

#### Alastair (ألستير)

Alastair is an English name meaning 'Defender of Men'.

#### Alayhi Salam (عليه السلام)

Alayhi-salam means 'Upon Him/Her Be Peace'. It is a respectable phrase said after mentioning a Prophet, an Imam or other very high-status figures. It is often represented by the acronym (AS), or the English acronym of Peace Be Upon Him (PBUH).

#### Albert

Albert is an English name meaning 'Noble or Bright'.

#### Alex

Alex, short for Alexander, is an English name meaning 'Great Protector'.

#### Alexander

Alexander is an English name meaning 'Great Protector'.

#### Alfred

Alfred is an English name meaning 'Supernaturally Wise'.

#### Alhamdulillah (الحمد لله)

Praise be to Allah. This phrase is said in thanks to God.

#### Ali (علي)

(1) Ali ibn Abi Talib (AS) is one of the most famous sahabah (companions) of Prophet Muhammed (SAW). Ali is actually the Prophet's cousin and he became the husband of the Prophet's daughter, Fatimah (AS). Ali and Fatimah had four children and the most famous were Hassan and Hussain. Ali was blessed with the title Ameer Al Mumineen (Commander of the Faithful) by the Prophet. Ali became the fourth Khalif after the death of the Prophet and Ali is often titled Imam Ali and is loved by all Muslims. Ali is a very popular boy's name.

(2) Ali may also mean high in grandeur but the spelling of this word is usually altered like this 'aliy' or in other ways as the word aliy may be used as a description of God - Al Aliy ul Adheem - The Most High and Most Mighty. In Arabic the word Ali and Aliy are spelt the same.

#### Ali Ibn Abi Talib (علي ابن ابو طالب)

See Ali, Ibn and Abu Talib.

The Abi in Abi Talib should be written as Abu.

#### Alim (عالم)

A learned person in Islam. A scholar.

#### Allah (الله)

Allah is the Arabic word for 'God'.

The word Allah was in usage since the days of pre-Islamic Arabia. Islam is a monotheistic and Abrahamic faith. This means that Muslims believe that there is only one God, and that this God is the same God that Christians and Jews (referred to in Islam as the People of the Book) worship. Muslims believe that Abraham, Moses and Jesus, and mostly all the other Prophets of the Old and New Testament, were all prophets of God. Arab Christians use the word Allah to refer to God.

The Islamic concept of mankind's place in the universe hinges on the notion that Allah, or God, is the only true reality. There is nothing permanent other than Him. Allah is considered eternal and uncreated, whereas everything else in the universe is created. The Qur'an describes Him in Sura 112: "Say: He is Allah, Singular. Allah, the Absolute. He begetten not nor was begotten. And to Him have never been one equal. The Qur'an condemns and mocks the pre-Islamic Arabs for attributing daughters to Allah (sura 53:19.)

Allah is considered by Muslims to be omnipotent, omnipresent, and omniscient. He is said to be "in Heaven" (Qur'an 67:16) and "in the heavens and the earth" (Qur'an 66:3), but also said to be "nearer to him [man] than his jugular vein" (Qur'an 50:16); He constantly watches all that goes on in the world, and knows all things. This suggests that He is present in the heart as the supreme witness. 'And He it is Who takes your souls at night (in sleep), and He knows what you acquire in the day, then He raises you up therein that an appointed term may be fulfilled; then to Him is your return, then He will inform you of what you were doing. (sura 6:60)'

Muslims do not try to draw or depict Allah in any way, according to Islamic belief it could lead to idol worship. Instead, they focus on His 99 attributes/names that are stated in the Quran, the holy book of the Muslims. Nearly one third of the book is used describing Allah's attributes and actions. Also, 'hadith qudsi' are special recorded sayings of Muhammad to Muslims where he quotes what Allah says to him. The ninety-nine attributes are frequently written in calligraphic Arabic as a permissible decoration, which adorns mosques and homes of Muslims.

#### Allahu Akbar (الله اكبر)

Allahu Akbar means 'God is the Greatest', meaning that nothing can supersede God or be better than Him. It is a common phrase in Islam and it features in the adhan and prayer. Muslims tend to use it for lots of reasons and to express many emotions.

#### Allahu Alem (الله اعلم)

Allahu A'lem means "God knows".

#### Allegiance

Sovereign (support of a person/government)

#### Alms

Charity, alms-giving, alms, charity; alms tax.

#### Altruism

Excessive generosity, giving in abundance (preferring others to oneself).

An operation.

#### Ameen (آمين)

A supplication (dua) meaning, "O Allah, respond to (or answer) what we have said". It is usually said out aloud in prayers.

#### Ameer (أمير)

Leader or commander. It is a common name for males.

See Ameen.

See Ameer.

#### Amir Al Mumineen (امير المؤمنين)

Means 'Commander of the Belivers' or 'Commander of the faithful'. This title was given to the Imam Ali (AS) specifically by the Prophet Muhammed (SAW), but was later attributed to anybody who became a khalif (not by the Prophet (SAW)), so there is amir al-mumineen Abu Bakr, amir al-mumineen Umar, Uthman, muawiyah, yazeed etc.

#### Amira (أميره)

Amira is the feminine form of the name 'Amir'. Amira means leader or commander (feminine), and it is a popular girl's name.

#### Ana (أنا)

Ana translates into either 'I am' or 'me' depending on the grammar of a sentence.

#### Ana Bi Khair (أنا بخير)

Ana bi khair means 'I am well'. It is a response to the question 'kayfa halek?' - how are you?

#### Analogy

Deduction, syllogism (partial likeness between two things which are compared)

#### Anasheed (أناشيد)

The word anasheed is plural. Anasheed are religious songs. The singular word is nasheed.

#### Anbiyaa (أنبياء)

The word anbiya is a plural word meaning 'Prophets'. The singular form is nabi (or nabey).

#### Andrew

Andrew is an English name meaning 'Valiant'.

#### Aneeq (انيق)

A descriptive word meaning slender, thin or stylish.

The feminine form of the word is aneeqah (انيقه)

#### Aneeqah (انيقه)

A (feminine) descriptive word meaning slender, thin or stylish.

The masculine form of the word is aneeq (انيق)

#### Angel (ملاك)

The Arabic word for angel is malak.

See Aneeqah.

#### Ansar (انصار)

Literally means helpers or supporters. In Islamic history the people of Madinah who responded to the Prophet's call to Islam and offered Islam a city-state power are known as Ansar.

#### Anta (انت)

Anta means 'you' or 'you are'.

#### Anthony

Anthony is an English name meaning 'Priceless'.

#### Anwar (أنوار)

Anwar is the plural of 'nur' which means light. It is sometimes used as either a girl's (especially) or boy's name.

#### Apostasy

Heresy (renouncing former beliefs)

#### Apostate

Backslider (person who renounces his former beliefs.)

Not real law

#### Appropriation

Misappropriation, usurpation, extortion (to attain something unlawfully,take and use as one's own)

#### Aqabah (عقبه)

A place just outside of Mecca, in Mina where the first Muslims from Yathrib Madinah pledged allegiance to the Prophet in the year 621 C.E.. A similar meeting took place the next year when more Muslims from Yathrib pledged their allegiance to the Prophet.

#### Aqeedah (عقيده)

The belief system that is based upon a firm conviction in all the fundamentals of faith and of the Oneness of Allah, i.e. creed
It is derived from the verb aqada meaning to firmly bind and knot. Whatsoever settles in the heart in a firm and definitive manner is said to be that person's aqeedah.
In the technical sense it refers to the definitive faith and certain ruling that is not open to any doubt. It is called aqeedah because the person binds his heart upon it.

#### Aqil (عاقل)

(1) Sane, not mentally incapacitated.
(2) Friendly, good and pleasant.

#### Aql (عقل)

Aql means 'mind'. The phraze 'Ista'mil 'aqlek' translates into 'Use your mind'.

#### Arabic (عربي)

Arabic is the language of the Arabs. Many non-Arabs also speak the language and it comes in many dialects which can be so different an person from one country will have difficulty understanding the other. Arabic is called 'Arabee' in Arabic. It is a very popular language and the Quran is written in Arabic.

#### Arafah (عرفه)

The area that surrounds Mount Rahmah, southeast of Mecca.

#### Arafat (عرفات)

A plain north of Mecca. It is on this plain that humanity will be raised on the Day of Judgment for questioning and judgment. During the Hajj on the ninth day of the month of Zhu-l-Hijjah, Muslim pilgrims gather on this plain for one day.

#### Arbitration

Judgment, decree (settlement of a dispute by a person or persons acting as arbitrators)

#### Arham (ارحام)

Araham is a plural word meaning 'wombs'.

#### Arnold

Arnold is an English name meaning 'Strong as an Eagle'.

#### Arsh (عرش)

Throne. The specific throne often mentioned is the throne of Allah. It is believed to be physical by the Muslims but is sometimes mentioned metaphorically in the Quran as a means of presenting the power and authority of God.

#### Arthur

Arthur is an English name meaning 'Champion'.

#### As Sala (صلاة)

See Salat.

Asad means lion. It has also been used for a boy's name.

#### Ashura (عاشوراء)

The tenth day of the Islamic month of Muharram. On this day the memorial of Moses' (AS) salvation from the hands of Pharaoh, and the slaying of the Grandson of the Prophet Muhammed (SAW), Hussain (AS) and his companions, and his children are remembered.

#### Asiya (آسيا)

(1) Asiya (AS) is the name of Pharaoh's wife. She found Prophet Musa (AS) as a baby and convinced Pharaoah not to murder him. She then rejected her husband's claim of divinity and was a Muslim as she chose monotheism. Some Muslim girls are called Asiya.
(2) Asiya is what Arabs call the continent of Asia.

Origin.

#### Asr (عصر)

Asr means Evening; It is also the name of an obligatory Prayer (salat) that consists of four rakahs; it is performed in the same way as the Al-Dhuhur Prayer.

#### Assalamu Alaikum (السلام عليكم)

Peace be unto you. It is a shortened form of the grand greeting: Assalamu alaikum wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuh (Peace be unto you and so may the mercy of Allah and His blessings). The greeting is recommended to be only used between Muslims.

In reply to this a person may repeat the greeting and say: Assalamu Alaikum; However, it is more fitting to reply: Wa Alaikum Assalam.

#### Assalamu Alaikum Wa Rahmatullahi Wa Barakatuh (السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركاته)

"Peace be unto you and so may the mercy of Allah and His blessings". It is the full version of the Islamic greeting.

#### Astaghfirullah (استغفر الله)

An Arabic phrase meaning "I ask Allah forgiveness." A Muslim says this phrase many times, even when he is talking to another person. When a Muslim abstains from doing wrong, or even when he wants to prove that he is innocent of an incident he uses this expression.

The color black.

#### Atfal (اطفال)

Atfal is a plural word meaning 'Children'. The singular form is tifl.

#### Athab (عذاب)

Punishment or torture.

#### Audhu (أعوذ)

Audhu is usually part of a phrase: Audhu Billahi Minashaitanir Rajeem. It means 'I seek refuge'.

#### Audhu Billahi Minashaitanir Rajeem (أعوذ بالله من الشيطان الرجيم)

'I seek refuge from the accursed Satan'. This phrase is often recited to ward away evil and before saying bismillahi rahman ar-Raheem before reading the Quran or other activities.

#### Awal (أول)

This word means 'first'.

#### Awliya (اولياء)

Awliya' is the plural of wali. It means guides, leaders, saints, etc.

#### Awrah (عوره)

Parts of the body that are not supposed to be exposed to others, but this is not to be confused with the english meaning 'private parts', because a woman's legs, for example, is an awrah.

#### Aws (أوس)

Aws is a popular boy's name. The word Aws is the name of a tribe that was prominent in the city of Madinah during the time of the Prophet Muhammed (SAW).

The Aws often fought with another tribe, the Khazraj, in Madinah, but when the Prophet (SAW) settled in Madinah he made peace between them and they lived peacefully and happily together. Single-handed he had stopped decades of war and loss of life and bound the tribes through Islam.

#### Ayah (آيه)

Proof, evidence, verse (from the Quran), lesson, sign, revelation, miracle etc.

#### Ayat (آيات)

Ayat is the plural of ayah which means a verse from the Quran but it can also mean proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, miracles, etc.

#### Ayatollah (آية الله)

A high-ranking cleric of the Shia Muslims is known as an Ayatollah. The word means 'sign of God'. Ayatollahs wear traditional clothes when preaching or teaching. They wear black or white turbans with the black turbans signifying they are descendants of Prophet Muhammed (SAW) through his Ahlulbayt (AS).

There is a difference between a normal Ayatollah and a grand Ayatollah. A grand Ayatollah is a marje' and gives direction to the Muslims who follow him (taqleed) in terms of religious law and fiqh. A normal Ayatollah has no right to guide people but can only choose to follow what he thinks is correct. Everybody else has to follow a marje', a grand Ayatollah.

#### Ayatul

Means 'Verse (of the) ...'. For example there is Ayatul Kursi which means Verse of the throne, in the Quran.

#### Ayatul Kursi (آية الكرسي)

In the Quran, Surah Baqara (Chapter of the Cow), Ayah (verse) 255 is very beautiful and special and is given this title: "verse of the throne".

[2.255] Allah is He besides Whom there is no god, the Everliving, the Self-subsisting by Whom all subsist; slumber does not overtake Him nor sleep; whatever is in the heavens and whatever is in the earth is His; who is he that can intercede with Him but by His permission? He knows what is before them and what is behind them, and they cannot comprehend anything out of His knowledge except what He pleases, His knowledge (throne) extends over the heavens and the earth, and the preservation of them both tires Him not, and He is the Most High, the Great.

See Aisha.

See Ain.

#### Ayna (اين)

Where or wherever.

#### Ayyoob (أيوب)

Prophet Ayyoob (also written Ayoob or Ayub) is known as Job in the English bible.

Ayyoob was a Prophet who lived a sheltered and prosperous life so God decided to test him after Satan said that Ayyoob was only grateful to God due to material wealth. Ayyoob was tested by his Lord and he lost his livelihood, his house, wives, children and he also became very ill, but he remained constant in his devotion to God and worship saying - 'God has taken away what he gave me and I was only the caretaker of his property for a while. God gives to whom he wills and he takes away from whom he wills'. God was impressed with this patience and devotion and in time the Prophet had all his things return back to him but better and more, and he become healthier and happier than ever before. This story is an example for the believers that they should be ready to be tested and be patient even if they may lose their loved ones and possessions.

See Athab.

See Athan.

#### Aziz (عزيز)

Aziz (pronounced azeez) is a popular boy's name. It means wise. One of the names of God is 'Al Aziz'.

### B

Door or gate.

#### Baba (بابا)

Arabic for dad/father. A son or daughter would call his or her father baba.

#### Backbite

To spiteful talk especially about a person who is not present.

#### Backbiter

Slander (spiteful talker especially about a person who is not present.)

The Arabic word for bad is 'Sayyi'.

The name of the first full military confrontation between the Muslims and the pagans. The battle took place between the Muslims and the Quraish of Mecca in the second year of Hijrah (624 C.E.). Even though the Muslims were outnumbered, the final result was victory.

#### Bait (بيت)

Bait (also spelt bayt) means 'house'.

#### Baitul (بيت ال)

Baitul means 'house of...'. An example of the usage of this word is the term 'baitul mal' - the house of currency (National Treasury).

#### Baitul Mal (بيت المال)

The national treasury. Everybody in the Muslim state that pays taxes has the money go into the baitul mal (the house of currency). The money from this is used to fund the state, its endeavors and to support the poor.

#### Bakkah (بكه)

Bakkah is another name for Mecca. It is thought to be the original name of the place and it is mentioned in the Quran.[3.96] Most surely the first house appointed for men (and women) is the one at Bakkah, blessed and a guidance for the nations.
[3.97] In it are clear signs, the standing place of Ibrahim, and whoever enters it shall be secure, and pilgrimage to the House is incumbent upon men for the sake of Allah, (upon) everyone who is able to undertake the journey to it; and whoever disbelieves, then surely Allah is Self-sufficient, above any need of the worlds.

A country or state.

#### Balaghah (بلاغه)

Eloquence. Balaghah usually comes in a sentance as part of the title of a famous book called Nahj al Balaghah - The Peak of Eloquence. This book contains beautifully worded sermons narrated by Imam Ali (AS).

#### Baligh (بالغ)

Baligh means developed. A human is said to be baligh when they have attained the age of puberty or what fiqh has defined as 'adulthood', when a child is not a child anymore and becomes responsible for his or her deeds for which they may entail punishment on Judgement Day.

Depending on who's fiqh interpretations a Muslim follows, the ages of balaghah vary. Often for boys, the age of Balaghah is considered to be 15.5 years of age, whereas for girls it is 9 and up, or when they start to have periods.

#### Bani (بني)

Bani means 'children of'. For example, 'Bani Israel' are the Children of Israel (descendants of Prophet Jacob).

#### Bani Israeel (بني إسرائيل)

Bani Israeel means 'Children of Israel'. As you may know, Prophet Israeel (AS) is Prophet Yaqoob (Jacob), and the people who descended from him are known as the children of Israeel; Children of Prophet Jacob (AS).

Cow.

#### Baqii (البقيع)

Al-Baqii is the name of the cemetery where a good many of the Sahabah are buried. It is in the south-east side of Madina.span id=

#### Barakallah Feek (باركالله فيك)

This is an expression which means: "May the blessings of Allah be upon you." When a Muslim wants to thank to another person, he uses different statements to express his thanks, appreciation, and gratitude. One of them is to say Barakallah Feek, (or Barakallah Beek).

Cold or cool.

#### Barry

Barry is an English name meaning 'Marksman'.

#### Barzakh (برزخ)

Barzach (an alternative spelling) is a stage of existence that follows after death. When a person dies Muslims believe that the soul lives on in a special stage of time. In Barzakh the person is asked questions in the grave and may receive blessings or torments. When Judgment day comes they are led to either heaven, hell or limbo, but while they are waiting for that day to arrive they are in the state of Barzakh.

#### Batil (باطل)

Incorrect; Unaccepted; Falsehood; Evil.

#### Batool (بتول)

Batool means pure and clean. It has been used as a Girl's name.

#### Bawl (بول)

Urine.

The name Paul and the word bawl is pronounced almost the same by Arabs!!!

House or home.

#### Baytullah (بيت الله)

Baytullah (also spelt baitullah) is formed of two words: bait & Allah; It means 'House of God', and it is in reference to the holy Kaaba in the town of Mekkah.

#### Beard (لحية)

The Arabic word for Beard is Lihyah.

#### Beautiful (جميل)

The Arabic word for beautiful is Jameel (masculine) and Jameelah (feminine).

#### Beauty (جمال)

The Arabic word for beauty is Jamal.

#### Beek (بك)

Grammar: word;This is the slang form of the word 'bika'.

#### Being undesirable

Compulsion (being compelled)

#### Benefactor

A person who gives financial or other help.

#### Benjamin (بن يامين)

Benjamin is an English name meaning 'Son of right hand'. Prophet Jacob (PBUH) had two sons from his wife Sarah - Joseph (PBUH) and Benjamin.

Benjamin is pronounced 'Ben ya-meen' in Arabic, and the true form is written that way too.

#### Bernard

Bernard is an English name meaning 'Stern Bear'.

#### Bibi (بيبي)

Means Grandmother.

In the UK some British parents name their daughters bibi or bébé because they think it is cute. lol.

#### Bida (بدعه)

Means Innovation. This is the addition/removal/ignorance of an Islamic law or teaching. Bida usually goes against what is written in authentic hadiths and the Quran or goes against what the Prophet (PBUH&HP) practiced and taught.

The Prophet (PBUH&HP) said: "If anyone introduces an innovation in the religion, he will be responsible for it. (Good or bad). If anyone introduces an innovation or gives shelter to a man who introduces an innovation (in the religion) he is cursed by Allah, by His angels and by all the people." [Sunnan Abu Dawud]

The Prophet (PBUH&HP) also said: "Whoever does an action which we (Allah and His Messenger) have not commanded, it will be rejected." [Muslim - Sahih]

There are many understandings about what is or isn't bida, so your best bet is to ask your scholar.

See Bida.

#### Bigotry

Religious zeal, fanaticism (to hold an opinion obstinately and not to tolerant towards those who do not.)

#### Bika (بك)

Bika (or bik) is a synonym of 'feek'. It means 'in you' or 'with you'. The 'a' on the end of the word is an often-used diacritic.

#### Bilal (بلال)

Bilal (RA) was a very special companion of Prophet Muhammed (PBUH&HP). He was originally a black slave but converted to Islam while he was still a slave and for this he was tortured by his master and almost murdered. The Prophet bought him from his master just in time and saved his life. He freed Bilal and Bilal became an influential figure and great companion of the Prophet of Islam.

See Ibn.

#### Bint (بنت)

The word bint means 'daughter-of', so Fatimah bint Muhammed means Fatima daughter-of Muhammed (AS). Sometimes the word bint is used to mean a girl.

#### Bird (طير)

The Arabic word for bird is tayr.

#### Bismihi Taala (بسمه تعالى)

By His (God's) name, the Most High (and Mighty). This phrase is used instead of 'In the Name of Allah, most beneficent, most merciful' (bismillah) because it doesn't contain the word Allah, so it can be written on documents which can be later discarded or destroyed without worry that the word Allah is ruined.

#### Bismillah (بسم الله)

"In the name of Allah (God)". It is a shortened version of 'Bismillah ar-Rahman ar-Raheem' (In the name of Allah, most gracious, most merciful) and it precedes all surahs (chapters) of the Quran except one. Bismillah is said as a blessing before eating food and other actions that are worthy of giving thanks to Allah or asking of His support.

See Bismillah.

#### Black (اسود)

The color black is Aswad in Arabic.

#### Blind (اعمى)

The Arabic word for blind (void of sight) is 'ama'.

#### Book (كتاب)

The Arabic word for book is kitab.

#### Bow down

Bowing, bending, genuflection (the act of bowing in the Salat)

#### Boy (ولد)

The Arabic word for boy is 'Walad'.

#### Brave (شجاع)

The Arabic word for brave is Shuja'.

#### Brian (برايان)

Brian is an English name meaning 'High, Noble, Strong'.

#### Brother (أخ)

The Arabic word for brother is 'akh'. Muslims call Muslim men brothers as the Muslims are like a large family.

### C

#### Calendar (تقويم)

The Arabic word for calendar is 'taqweem'. See Islamic Calendar for more information. span id=

See Khalif.

#### Calligraphy (خط)

Calligraphy is known as khat in Arabic.

The chador (pronounced correctly as chaddir) is an item of clothing used by women. It is effectively a large, thin, shawl that is wrapped around the body and covers the head too. It is most popular in Iran, although it is coming out of fashion, and it is usually black in colour.

The first letter of the true-form word is a Persian letter.

#### Chair (كرسي)

The Arabic word for chair is 'Kursi'

#### Charity

Voluntary alms (loving kindness towards others)

#### Child (طفل)

Child in Arabic is 'Tifl'.

#### Children (اطفال)

Children in Arabic is 'Atfal'. A single child is known as a 'tifl'.

#### Christian (مسيحي)

The word 'Christian' in Arabic is 'Maseehy'.

#### Circumambulate (طواف)

To circumambulate (this is an English word), is to go round the K'aba seven times. This is a rite-of-passage of Hajj. In Arabic this is known as doing Tawaf.

#### Circumcision

Cutting off the foreskin of a male person as a religious rite.

#### Civil ordinances of Islam

A collection of Islamic laws for private rights of citizens

#### Cleanliness

Taharat is the state of being clean and not impure.

#### Clear rule

Free from doubt, not confused

#### Colin

Colin is an English name meaning 'People's Victory'.

#### Come (تعال)

The Arabic word for 'come' is 'taal'.span id=

#### Commands and prohibitions

Religious injunctions and commandments.

#### Commentator

Interpreter,expositor, exegete (a person who comments religious issues.)

#### Confidence

Firm trust, conviction, devotion to God (Trust to something firmly.)

#### Congratulations (مبروك)

The Arabic word for congratulations is 'mabrook'.

#### Congregational prayer

Communicational prayer (a group of people gathered for religious worship.)

#### Consecutively

Knowledge through successive transmissions, following continuously , in unbroken order

#### Constructive

Reformer, peace-maker (offering helpful suggestions)

#### Contentment

A contented state.

#### Contracts

A formal agreement between people or groups or countries.

#### Contractual partnership

Partnership according to  a contract.

Be contrary (state the opposite, what is said is untrue or that a person is wrong.).

#### Conviction

Convicing [proving or declaring (a person ) to be guilty of a crime, a firm opinion or belief, being convince].

#### Cool (بارد)

Cool (cold) in Arabic is barid.

There is no Arabic word for the slang term 'cool', but a lot of Arabs use the French version - Chique (pron. Sheek).

#### Corrupter

Dishonester (a person which is dishonest or immoral.)

#### Country (دوله)

The Arabic word for country is dawlah.

#### Covenant (عهد)

The Arabic word for covenant is 'ahid'.

#### Crazy (مجنون)

The Arabic word for crazy is Majnoon.

#### Crescent (هلال)

The Arabic word for a crescent moon is 'Hilal'.

### D

The Arabic word for dad is 'baba'. (Father is abb).span id=

#### Daff (دف)

A plain, tambourine-like drum.

#### Dajjal (دجال)

Dajjal is the name given to the Anti-Christ. Muslims believe that there will come a man near the end of times who will fight against Jesus (PBUH) when he returns, and Imam Mahdi (ATFS).span id=

#### Daleel (دليل)

Reason or argument.

#### Daniel

Daniel is an Enligh name meaning 'Ruler of the World'.

#### Dar (دار)

House or home.

Another word for house is bayt (also spelt bait).

#### Dars (درس)

(1) A lesson.
(2) Sometimes an 's' is added to Arabic words to imply that there is more than one of this thing. The word dar means 'house', so dars could mean 'houses'.
The Arabic shown is for lesson.

#### Darul Islam (دار الإسلام)

Dar-ul-Islam, which literally means Home of Islam, is the name given to countries whose religion and government is Islamic. A Muslim may say, for example, that Saudi Arabia is Darul Islam, while China is Darul Kufur (Home of Disbelief).

#### Darul Kufur (دار الكفر)

Dar-ul-Kufur, which literally means Home of Disbelief, is the name given to countries whose religion and government are effectively Atheist. A Muslim may say, for example, that Saudi Arabia is Darul Islam (Home of Islam), while China is Darul Kufur (Home of Disbelief).

#### David (داود)

David is the name of a Prophet, known as Dawood in Arabic.

The transliteral spelling of the word david is دافيد (da-feed). There is no letter 'v' in Arabic so it has been replaced with the letter 'f'.

See Dawah.

#### Dawaa (دواء)

Medicine or cure.

Is there any chance you meant to find the word Dawah?

#### Dawah (دعوه)

Literally means "call", and in this sense it refers to calling to the Truth through preaching and propagation.

#### Dawlah (دوله)

Dawlah means country or state.span id=

#### Dawn (ضحى)

The Arabic word for dawn is Dhuha.

#### Dawood (داوود)

David in English. This Prophet was a devout servant of Allah who used to observe fasting on one day and break it the next, besides practicing forms of worship for about two-thirds of the night. Allah revealed the Psalms (Zaboor) to David, gave him wisdom and knowledge and granted him a strong kingdom.

See Dawood.

See Mawt.

#### Debtor

Obligator (a person who owes money or something else to another.)

#### Deceased prayer

Funeral prayer (recommended prayer for asking forgiveness for a dead person).

#### Deen (دين)

Religion. A way of life for Muslims.

#### Deer (غزالة)

Deer in Arabic is Ghazaleh. The English word Gazelle comes from this Arabic word.

#### Desirable

Preference [recommended action; performance will be rewarded but neglect is not punished (said of an action).]

#### Desirable prayers

Supererogatory prayer (the recommended prayers after or before the daily obligatory Salat).

#### Devil (شيطان)

A devil is called a 'Shaitan' in Arabic. Devils are the associates of Iblees (Satan).

#### Dhabeeha (ذبيحة)

An animal slaughtered in the Islamic way making it suitable for Muslim consumption (Halal).

#### Dhalim (ظالم)

A person who oppresses another person is called a dhalim. The person who is oppressed is called madhloom.

#### Dhalimeen (ضالمين)

This is a plural word meaning 'oppressors'.

Conscience.

#### Dhikr (ذكر)

Literally, Dhikr means mention or rememberance but it is often used in reference to the rememberance of Allah. When someone remembers his Lord he will commit less sins and Allah gives thawab for thikr.

#### Dhimmi (ذمي)

A non-Muslim living under the protection of an Islamic state. They are exempt from the duties of Islam like military service and zakat but instead pay an alternative tax to the Islamic state called jizyah.

#### Dhuha (ضحى)

Dhuha means dawn (day-break), when there becomes brightness in the sky early in the morning. There is a chapter in the Quran called Al-Dhuha. Dhuha (often misspelled Doha) is also a popular girl's name - the Arabic equivalent of the English name Dawn.

In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful

[93.1] I swear by the early hours of the day,
[93.2] And the night when it covers with darkness.
[93.3] Your Lord has not forsaken you, nor has He become displeased,
[93.4] And surely what comes after is better for you than that which has gone befor
[93.5] And soon will your Lord give you so that you shall be well pleased.
[93.6] Did He not find you an orphan and give you shelter?
[93.7] And find you lost (i.e. unrecognized by men) and guide (them to you)?
[93.8] And find you in want and make you to be free from want?
[93.9] Therefore, as for the orphan, do not oppress (him).
[93.10] And as for him who asks, do not chide (him),
[93.11] And as for the favor of your Lord, do announce (it).

#### Dhuhur (ظهر)

Means Afternoon. It is also the name of the obligatory salat (prayer) that is performed in the afternoon: Salat al-dhuhur.

Qamoos.

#### Dignify

Blessing, give dignity to ( to give high rank or position).

See Dhikr.

See Deen.

#### Divine Legislation

Divine legislation, legislating (the laws themselves according to Islamic regulations).

#### Divorce (طلاق)

The Arabic word for divorce is 'talaq'.

See Jinn.

See Dua.

#### Doctor (طبيب)

A doctor in Arabic is known as a tabeeb (or dictawr). Arabs call dentists and vets tabeeb too. Basically, the meaning of the word tabeeb is equivalent to 'physician' (any type).

Tabeeb bashary = medical doctor;
Tabeeb baitary = vet;
Tabeeb asnan = dentist;

#### Dog (كلب)

The Arabic word for dog is 'kelb'.

See Dhuha.

Bab.

See Dua.

#### Dream (حلم)

Dream in Arabic is 'hilm' or 'manamah'.

#### Dua (دعاء)

Supplication and Invocation to Allah - asking favours to Him.

#### Dunya (دنيا)

This world or life.
The opposite is the afterlife (akhirah).

#### Duty (واجب)

The Arabic word for duty is 'wajib'. Wajib also means obligation/obligatory.

### E

See Isa.

#### Egypt (‏مصر)

Official Name: Arab Republic of Egypt.
In Arabic, the country is called 'Misr'.

Capital: Cairo (Al Qahirah)

#### Eid (عيد)

Eid means celebration. There are two official Eids in Islam and they are Eid al-fitr (Celebration of the feast of breaking fast at the end of Ramadhan) and Eid al-Adhha.

#### Eid Al Adhha (عيد الاضحى)

Eid Al-Adhha translates to 'The Celebration of the Sacrifice'. The word Eid means celebration or festival. The word Adhha comes from the word dhahiyyah (noun) which means slaughter or sacrifice (or victim).
Eid Al-Adhha is one of the two Eids (days of celebration in the Islamic calendar). The other Eid is Eid al-Fitr and happens at the end of the holy month of fasting, Ramadhan. Eid al-Adhha occurs on the tenth day of the last month of the Islamic calendar (Dhul-Hijjah).

Eid al-Adhha is celebrated to mark a significant historical event relating to Prophet Abraham (PBUH) when he was tested by his Lord who commanded him to slaughter his only son Ismaeel (Ishmael) (PBUH) and when he was just about to make the cut, God sent down a ram for him to slaughter instead. Abraham's faith had been tested and he had passed the test. This Eid is celebrated remembering this event and as part of the rites of pilgrimage (the Hajj), the people who do the pilgrimage must slaughter/pay-to-slaughter an animal likewise and distribute the meat amongst their family, other pilgrims, relatives, friends and the poor.

#### Eid Al Fitr (عيد الفطر)

Eid al-Fitr roughly translates to 'the celebration of the end of fasting'. Muslims fast during the Islamic month of Ramadhan and they conclude this month with a three day celebratory holiday, an Eid, known as Eid al-Fitr.

#### Eid Mubarak (عيد مبارك)

Means 'Happy Eid'. Eid is the Muslim celebration that happens when the month of fasting, Ramadhan, ends.

The translation above is innacurate but gives the general intention of the phraze. Literally translated it would be '(Have a) blessed Celebration'.

#### Embodiment

Manifestation (expressing in a visible form.

Emel means hope.

#### Eshel (اسهل)

The word eshel (pronounced es,hel not esh,el) is derived from the word sehil, which means easy. Eshel means 'easier'.

Union or the uniting of two or more things together, usually used in referring to the uniting of organisations.

#### Evil (شر)

The Arabic word for evil is Shar.

#### Excuse Me (عفواً)

The Arabic word for the English phrase 'Excuse me' is 'Afwen'.

#### Extremism (تعصُّب)

The Arabic word for 'extremism' is 'Taassub'. The word is strongly linked with the Arabic word for anger. Modern connotations relate this word with terrorism while its' original common use was to describe how people would stick to particular creed-based opinions with emotional fervour.

An extremist could be called 'mutassib', which also means they are angry.

#### Eye (عين)

The Arabic word for eye is 'ain' (also spelt 3ayn).

### F

#### Face (وجه)

The Arabic word for face is 'wejh'.

#### Faith (ايمان)

The Arabic word for faith is 'iman' (pronounced eeman).

#### Fajr (فجر)

Dawn; Salat Fajr is the obligatory (fardh) salah (prayer) before sunrise.

#### Falsafah (فلسفه)

Falsafah is Arabic for Philosophy.

#### Falsehood

Sin, vice (an untrue statement, a lie)

#### Far (بعيد)

The Arabic word for far is 'baeed'.

#### Farah (فرح)

Farah means happiness and it is a popular girl's name.

#### Fard (فرد)

1) Alone.
(2) An individual by her/himself.

By any chance are you searching for the word Fardh?

#### Fardh (فرض)

Obligatory; This word is synonymous with wajib.

#### Farha (فرحه)

Farha is a word thats meaning encapsulates 'fun and happiness'. It is similar to the word farah which means happiness. Both of these are popular girl's names.

Happy.

#### Farz (فرض)

See Fardh.

Corruption or loose-morals.

#### Fasiq (فاسق)

One who is rebellious/disobedient to Allah.

#### Fasiqun (فاسقون)

The rebellious/disobedient people to Allah.

#### Fasting (صوم)

The Arabic word for fasting (verb) is Sawm.

See Al Fatiha.

#### Fatimah (فاطمه)

Fatima (PBUH) was the only surviving offspring of the Prophet Muhammed (SAW), and she became the wife of Imam Ali (AS). She has the status of 'Master of the women of the World'. She is a member of Ahlulbayt. Fatimah is a popular girl's name.

Often her name will have another word following it. Such words are a show of reverance by those who love her. The most common of these words is zahraa which means luminous.

#### Fatwa (فتوى)

A fatwa is a legal verdict given using Islamic law. A scholar or group of scholars issue a fatwa when he/they reach a verdict on an issue and then their followers comply with their opinion.

#### Fayez (فايز)

The word fayez means winner. It is also a boys name.

#### Fear (خوف)

The Arabic word for fear is Khawf.

#### Fee Amanillah (في امان الله)

This phraze means '(be) with the safety of Allah'. It is used like goodbye is used by English speakers.

#### Fee Sabilillah (في سبيل الله)

Literally means 'In God's way'. Giving sadaqah (charity) for the sake of Allah is known as sadaqah fee sabilillah as this act of charity is not required by Islam but it is only recommended. There is lots of thawab for this type of charity.

#### Fighter (ملاكم)

A fighter is known as a 'mulakim' in Arabic. (Not military).

#### Final (اخر)

The Arabic word for final is Akhir.

#### Fiqh (فقه)

Islamic Jurisprudence. This is an extremely large and very complex topic of Islamic studies.

The meaning of the word fiqh is understanding, comprehension, knowledge, and jurisprudence in Islam. A jurist is called a Faqih who is an expert in matters of Islamic legal matters.

A Faqih is to pass verdicts within the rules of the Islamic Law namely Shariah.

The most famous scholars of Fiqh in the history Muslims are the founders of the four schools of thought in (Sunni) Islam: Imam Malik, Imam Ash-Shafi'i, Imam Abu Hanifah, and Imam Ahmad.

Anything or action in Islam falls within the following five categories of Fiqh:

1. Fardh (Wajib): This category is a must for the Muslim to do such as the five daily prayers. Doing the Fardh counts as a good deed, and not doing it is considered a bad deed or a sin.
It is also called Wajib except for Imam Abu Hanifah who makes Wajib a separate category between the Fardh and the Mubah.

2. Mustahab/Mandub: This category is recommended for the Muslim to do such as extra prayers after Zuhr and Maghrib. Doing the Mandub counts as a good deed and not doing it does not count as a bad deed or a sin.

3. Mubah (Allowed): This category is left undecided and left for the person, such as eating apples or oranges. Doing or not doing the Mubah does not count as a good or bad deed.

Intention of the person can change Mubah to Fard, Mandub, Makruh, or Haram.

Other things could also change the status of the Mubah. For example, any Mubah becomes Haram if it is proven harmful, and any necessary thing to fulfill a Fardh is a Fardh too.

4. Makruh (Hated): This category is a detested and hated such as growing very long fingernails or sleeping on the stomach. Not doing the Makruh counts as a good deed and doing it does not count as a bad deed.

5. Haram (Prohibited): This category is prohibited for the Muslim to do such as stealing and lying. Doing the haram counts as a bad deed and not doing it counts as a good deed.

#### Firdaws (فردوس)

Firdaws is the name of the 7th level, the highest and best level of heaven.

It is not the garden of Eden as some may claim.

#### Fire (نار)

In English Islamic literature the word 'fire' usually refers to the fires of hell. The Arabic word for fire is 'nar'.

#### Fish (سمكة)

The Arabic word for fish is samakah.

#### Fitnah (فتنه)

To set up rivalry among the Muslims. To disclose secrets about the actions of another person (slang: snitching or grassing).

#### Fitrah (فطره)

The normal nature or instinct of a person, animal or thing. It is used in Islamic law to refer to laws that complement or promote a certain instinct - eg cleanliness.

#### Food (طعام)

The Arabic word for food is 'Taam'.

#### For (لك)

To say 'for' in Arabic it is done in two ways. You can say 'li' (lillah = For God), or 'lekke' (hadha lekke = this [is] for [you]).

The Arabic true-form shown is for lekke.

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#### Forbearance

Self-control, gentleness (patience, tolerance).

#### Fortitude and patience

Steadfastness, endurance (courage in bearing pain or trouble)

#### Fouzia (فوزيه)

Fouzia (pron. Fow-ziya) is a popular girl's name. Its' meaning comes from the word fawz, which means success or win.

#### Free(حر)

(1) The Arabic word for free, as in free from jail for example, is 'hur'.

#### Freedom (حريه)

The Arabic word for freedom is 'huriyah'.

#### Freeing

manumission, emancipation of slave

#### Friend (صديق)

The masculine Arabic word for friend is 'sadeeq', and the feminine form is 'sadeeqah'.
If you wanted to say 'he is my friend', you would say 'huwa sadeeqi'. If you wanted to say 'she is my friend', you would say 'heiya sadeeqeti'.

The Arabic form shown below is the masculine form. The femine form just has a 'hah' letter on the end.

#### From (من)

The Arabic word for 'from' is 'min'.

#### Fulan (فلان)

The word fulan means 'person' or 'someone'.span id=

#### Furqan (الفرقان)

Al Furqan - The Criterion (between truth and falsehood). It is another name for the Quran.

### G

#### Gender (جنس)

The Arabic word for gender is jins.span id=

#### Genealogical table

Pedigree (an account of descent from an ancestor given by listing the intermediate persons)

#### Generosity

Magnanimity, greatness (free from meanness or prejudice)

Excrement/stool.

#### Ghafoor (غفور)

Al-Ghafoor is one of the names of God. It means The Most Forgiving.

#### Ghaib (غيب)

The unseen. eg. Knowledge of the future.

#### Ghareeb (غريب)

(1) Foreign.
(2) Unusual or weird. (1) Foreign.

#### Gheebah (غيبه)

Doing gheebah is 'back-biting' - saying things about someone that they may not want others to know about, and saying those things behind their backs.

See Gheebah.

Singing.

A room.span id=

#### Ghusl (غسل)

Wash. There are different types of Wash related to Islam, the majority purpose of which is to purify ritually (make tahir).

#### Ghusl Al Janabah (غسل الجنابة)

Ghusl al-Janabah (wash of Janabah) is a special rite of washing to get the person out of janabah (an impure state). Janabah is a state which a person enters when they have had sex or ejaculated. They cannot pray if they have not done the gusl al-janabah (wash of janabah) in order to cleanse themselves.

The wash is very simple. A person makes the intention to wash, then they wash their head and neck fully, then they wash the whole of the right-hand side of the body, and then the left-hand side of the body.
Alternatively, they can make the intention and then plunge themselves into a vast (kurr) pool of clear water (not swimming pool water).
If there is no water or if there's no time to wash before the prayer time finishes, they must do tayammum temporarily.

#### God (الله)

The Arabic word for God is Allah.

See Inshallah.

#### God's mercy

God's commiseration (may God's mercy be upon him, to invoke God's blessing)

#### Good (جيد)

The Arabic word for good is 'jayed'. This sort of 'good' is a suitable reply when asked for the quality of an item or the health of an individual.

#### Good Night (تصبح على خير)

A similar phraze to the English 'Good Night' is 'Tusbah ala Khair' which is Arabic for '(may you) wake up to goodness'.

#### Goodbye (مع السلامه)

The most common word for goodbye in Arabic is ma'asalama ((farewell) with peace).

#### Government (حكومه)

The Arabic word for government is hukuma.

#### Grace

Mercy, pity, compassion, loving-kindness, blessing (to have mercy on some one, the eliminated favor of God)

#### Grant

Fulfillment, hearing and answering (something fulfilled or allowed as a privilege)

#### Guardianship

Custody (of children)-(the right or duty of taking care of something)

### H

#### Habeeb (حبيب)

The word habib on its own means 'beloved', but with the i on the end of the word you attribute the word to yourself so habibi means 'my beloved'. Also see Habibi.

#### Habeel (هابيل)

Habeel, also spelt habil, is the name of the second son of Prophet Adam (PBUH). He was murdered by his brother Qabeel out of jelousy.

#### Habibi (حبيبي)

Habibi means 'My love' or 'My beloved'. Habibi is the form of the word used to refer to men. The feminine form is 'habibti'.

#### Habibtak (حبيبتك)

Habibtek means 'your love'.

#### Habibti (حبيبتي)

When a person wishes to say 'my dear' or 'my beloved' to a woman, he says 'habibti'. If it was said to a man, the word would be 'habibi'.

It means "something new" or a "talk". In Islam, Hadith refers to that which is attributed to the Prophet (SAW) as regards words, actions or approvals, physical features and characteristics.

#### Hafidh (حافظ)

(1) A person is labelled a 'hafidh' if he or she has memorized the whole Quran.
(2) Protect
(3) Keep (safe)
(4) Memorize

#### Hafsah (حفصة)

Hafsah is the name of one of the wives of Prophet Muhammed (PBUH&HP). She is the daughter of Umar bin al-Khattab.span id=

Alive or living.

#### Haider (حيدر)

Haider is a popular boy's name. It means lion, and Haider was the original name Ali ibn Abi Talib (AS) was given by his mother.

#### Hair (شعر)

The Arabic word for hair is 'Shaar'.

#### Hajj (حج)

Hajj is the fifth pillar of Islam. The Hajj is a pilgrimage to the city of Makkah in Saudi Arabia. Hajj is obligatory on every Muslim except those who are ill or have financial constraints.

#### Hajj ceremonies

Pilgrimage to Mecca (an obligatory Islamic ceremony by visiting the Holy places and doing religious rituals in Mecca)

#### Hajji (حجي)

A male who has gone to Makkah and done the obligatory Hajj ritual is called a Hajji. A female who has done it is known as a Hijjiyah.

#### Hakam (حكم)

Judge or referee.

#### Halal (حلال)

Permissible, lawful. Used especially in referance to food.

#### Ham (لحم الخنزير)

Ham is pig meat, so the Arabic words means pig meat - Laham al-khanzeer.

#### Hamd (حمد)

Praise. The word Hamd alone is not very useful but when used in phrases like 'Al hamdu lillah', (The) Praise be to Allah, it is effective.

#### Hamzah (حمزه)

Hamzah (RA) was one of the uncles of Prophet Mohammed (PBUH&HP). He died a martyr in the battle of Uhud after being struck with a spear in his back. He was titled 'assadullah', the lion of God, as he was a very strong and brave defender of Islam.

#### Happy (فرحان)

The Arabic word for happy is farhan.

#### Haq (حق)

This word could mean: Truth, Truthfulness, Prerogative, Birthright, Correct, Right, etc.

#### Haram (حرام)

(1) Prohibited, illegal. Mostly used in referance to actions as well as foods.
(2) Sacred/Holy - as in Masjid al-Haram (The sacred mosque) in Mecca and within it is the Kaaba.

#### Harami (حرامي)

Thief or Burglar.

War or battle.

See Harun.

#### Harun (هارون)

Harun (or Haroon) is Aaron in English. Prophet Aaron (PBUH) was Moses's eloquent brother who helped him proclaim his mission to Pharaoh. When Moses (PBUH) went to fulfill the appointment with his Lord on Mount Sinai, Aaron succeeded him in leading the Israelites. During this period a man called Al-Samiri suggested to the Israelites that they make the golden figure of a calf to worship. Thus they went astray and committed a great sin. Aaron persistently tried to convince them to return to the worship of Allah, but they did not listen to him. Upon his return, Moses was angered by the Israelites and began to re-educate them about the true religion.

#### Hasan (حسن)

(1) Good or acceptable. Used to indicate authenticity of some reports in Hadith.
(2) The name of the Grandson of the Prophet (SAW) and son of Imam Ali (AS). Also written as Hassan, Hasen, Hassen.

#### Hasanat (حسنات)

When a good deed is done a Muslim gains positive points called hasanat or thawab. When a person is brought before God for judgement their good deeds will be weighed-up against their bad deeds (ithim).

#### Hassen (حسن)

(1) The name of the Grandson of the Prophet (SAW) and son of Imam Ali (AS). Also written as Hassan, Hasen, Hassen.
(2) Good or acceptable.

#### Hate (كراهة)

The Arabic word for hate is Karahah.

To say that you hate cheese for example, you say 'Ikreh Jibin'.

#### Hawaa (حواء)

Hawaa is the name of Prophet Adam's wife, know as Eve in English books.

See Hayat.

Life.

#### Heart (قلب)

The Arabic word for heart is qelb.

#### Heaven (جنة)

The Arabic word for heaven (paradise) is 'Jannah'.

See Hibah.

#### Hell (جهنم)

The Arabic word for hell is Jahanam.

#### Hello (السلام عليكم)

The Arabic word for hello is marhaba but most commonly used is Assalamu Alaikum which is the universal Muslim greeting.

#### Help (مساعده)

The Arabic word for help is 'musaedeh'.
To say 'help me' you say 'saidni'.
'Can you help me please' is 'mumkin tsaidni min fadhlek'.

The Arabic shown is for 'musaedeh'.

See Hibah.

#### Hibah (هبه)

Hibah means gift - a gift from Allah. It is a popular girl's name.

#### Hidayah (هداية)

The actual guiding of someone to the true path.

See Hijrah.

#### Hijab (حجاب)

Literally means Concealing, screening, cover, protecting and is used to refer to the mandatory (wajib) dress of the muslim female. It is usually a (1m x 1m) piece of cloth that is wound around the head to cover the hair, the ears and the neck.

#### Hijabi (حجابي)

Hijabi is a slang term used to label a lady as a hijab (veil) wearing woman. It is not derogatory. The term that is better used to refer to a veiled woman is muhajjibah.

Hijabi is not a recognised Arabic word so the Arabic shown here mimicks the phonetic pronunciation.

#### Hijjiyah (حجيه)

A female who has gone to Mecca and done the obligatory Hajj ritual is called a Hijjiyah. A male who has done it is known as a Hajji.

#### Hijrah (هجره)

Means migration. The Hijrah refers to the Prophet's migration from Mecca to Madinah. This journey took place in the twelfth year of his mission (622 C.E.). This is the beginning of the Muslim calendar. By islamic law the word hijrah usually refers to leaving a place to seek sancturary or freedom from persecution or freedom of religion or any other purpose. Hijrah can also mean to leave a bad way of life for a good or more righteous way.

#### Hikayah (حكايه)

Talk or speaking.

Crescent moon.

#### Hilwah (حلوة)

The word hilwah means nice, pretty or beautiful. It has been used as a Girl's name.

#### Hizb (حزب)

A party - usually political.

#### Hizbullah (حزب الله)

Hizbullah is made formed from two words; Hizb means 'political party', and ullah is derived from the word Allah which means God. Therefore Hizbullah means Party of God. Hizbullah is an organization based in the country of Lebanon and they have public and militant interests in the region. They aim to protect the Lebanese borders and the Palestinian state from Israeli aggression and occupation.

See Hud.

#### Hoori (حوري)

An native inhabitant of heaven is known as a Hoori. Fatimah (AS), the Prophet Muhammed's (SAW) daughter was known as a human hooriyah.

The 'yah' on the end of the word hoori above confirms that the subject is female - it is a language construct.

See Hoori.

#### Hope (أمل)

The Arabic word for hope is emel.

#### Hot (حار)

The Arabic word for hot, in reference to heat, is 'har'.

#### House (بيت)

House in Arabic is 'bait'.

#### How (كيف)

The Arabic word for 'how' is 'kayfa'.

#### How Are You? (كيف حالك)

The Arabic form of this phraze is 'Kayf Halek'.

#### Hud (هود)

Hud (also spealt hood) is the name of a Prophet of Islam.

#### Huda (هدى)

Huda (also spelt Hooda) is a popular girl's name. It means guidance.

#### Hukum (حكم)

A legal ruling or verdict.

Government.

#### Humaira (حميراء)

The word 'Humaira' was a nickname the Prophet Mohammed (pbuh&hp) gave to his wife Aisha, and this was because she had rosy cheeks. The word Humaira' means reddish.

#### Hur (حر)

Hur means 'free' as in free from prison.

Freedom.

See Hussain.

#### Husband (زوج)

The English word 'husband' is 'zawj' in Arabic.

#### Husbands (ازواج)

The English plural word 'husbands' is 'azwaj' in Arabic.

See Hussain.

#### Hussain (حسين)

Hussain, or Imam Hussain (pbuh), was the son of Imam Ali ibn Abi Talib (pbuh) and Fatimah bint Muhammed (pbuh). Imam Ali is the cousin of Prophet Muhammed (Pbuh&hp) and Hadrat Fatimah is the daughter of Prophet Muhammed, so Hussain was the grandson of the Prophet. Hussein died a martyr on Ashura, the tenth day of the Islamic month of Muharram along with the majority of his family and his companions, by the swords and arrows of the army of Yazid bin Mu'awiyah. Hussain is a very respected and loved figure in Islam. Many parents name their boys after him.

### I

#### I (انا)

The word 'I' is 'ana' in Arabic. Ana can also mean 'I am'.

Means woship. An act of ibadah is an act of worship done for the sake of Allah.

#### Ibid

Ibid is a Latin acronym for ibidim and it means 'At the same place'. In many English Islamic books the list of references sometimes state this word. It means the referenced quote can be found in the same book as listed above.
e.g.
1. The Holy Quran, by Allah, 1:1
2. Ibid; 27:30

See Ibn.

#### Iblees (إبليس)

A jinn (a special type of species) and shaytaan (satan). Iblees is the name of the jinn that caused Adam & Eve to be removed from heaven.

See Iblees.

#### Ibn (ابن)

Ibn, or bin, means 'son of'. Eg: Ali ibn Abi Talib (PBUH) means Ali son of Abi Talib.

#### Ibrahim (إبراهيم)

Abraham in English. He was the "Close One to Allah" Who preferred him over many others and selected him to be a messenger. Though brought up in a pagan community that worshiped idols, Abraham refused to do so and realized that there must be a greater god of the universe. Allah guided him to the right path and revealed His message to him. He then directed his mission to his people, and called on them to renounce idolatry. He was answered with stubborn refusals. They plotted against him but their schemes were in vain, for Allah, the Almighty, provided support and protection to His servant and prophet, Abraham. Abraham was the forefather of a line of prophets through his two sons Ishmael and Isaac. It was Abraham who began the construction of the Kaabah with the help of Ishmael.

#### Iddah (عده)

A woman's prescribed waiting period after divorce or death of husband. It is 4 months and 10 days.

If there was no period of iddah and the woman married another man and discovered she was pregnant then she would be unable to tell who the father of the child was. Iddah solves this potential problem. Iddah also applies in the situation where a woman converts while she is married to a none-Muslim husband, she has 4 months and 10 days for him to accept Islam or else the marriage dissolves.

#### Iftar (إفطار)

Breaking the fast. Beginning to eat after the sun sets - especially during ramadhan.

Ijtihad is the process whereby a very educated Muslim makes up his own ruling on the permissibility of an Islamic law just for himself. This person would be labelled a 'Mujtahid'. An uneducated person is not permitted to do this and must follow the ruling of his Imam instead.

#### Ikhlas (إخلاص)

The word ikhlas means 'sincerity'. It is the name of a surah (chapter) in the Quran. This chapter is also known by the name 'tawheed', which means unity.

(Chapter 112. The Unity)

In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful
[112.1] Say: He, Allah, is One.
[112.2] Allah is He on Whom all depend.
[112.3] He begets not, nor is He begotten.
[112.4] And none is like Him.

#### Ikhwa (إخوه)

Means brothers/sisters. Often used in sentances like 'nahnu ikhwa(tun)', we are brothers/sisters.

#### Ikhwan (اخوان)

Ikhwan is the plural of Akh.

#### Ikhwatun (إخوةٌ)

From the word Ikhwa which means brothers/sisters; the 'tun' on the end of the word is a diacritic (harakah).

#### Ilah (إله)

God / Deity / Lord.

#### Ill (مريض)

The Arabic word for 'ill' is 'Mareedh'.

#### Ilm (علم)

Literally means 'knowledge' or 'knowledge of ...'. It can also mean science.

#### Ilyas (إلياس)

Elijah in English. He was a prophet sent to the people of Baalbek, in east Lebanon. He called them to worship only Allah and stop adoring their idol Bala. They subjected him to different punishments.

Ibn Abbas said that Elijah was the paternal uncle of Elisha.

#### Imam (إمام)

The word Imam has multiple meanings:

(1) The person who leads a congretional (jamaa) prayer
(2) The Muslim leader who runs the Masjid (Mosque)
(3) A Khalif (leader of the Muslim peoples)
(4) A normal leader of Muslims, but this leader usually provides at least some spiritual guidance
(5) Any one of 12 infallible members of the Ahlulbayt (family of the Prophet) (AS). (Shia)
(6) Any one of the 4 recognised fallible grand scholars of the Ahlul Sunnah wal Jamaah. (Sunni)
(7) Any scholar who is deemed educated enough, usually a mujtahid
(8) An Alim
(9) An Ayatollah
(10) A Mufti
(11) A person who is given the special status of Imam by God; e.g. Prophet Abraham (PBUH).

#### Imam Jama'at

Leader of a congregational prayer

#### Iman (ايمان)

Faith. Iman (pronounced Eeman) is a popular girl's name.

Iman is pronounced eeman but with the ee said said softer and the a slightly extended.

#### Impure, dirty

Not pure, ritually unclean (unclean substance or element, ritually not pure)

Woman.

#### Ina Lillahi Wa Ina Ilayhi Raajioon (إنا لله و إنا إليه راجعون)

"To Allah we belong and unto Him is our return". Is said immediately upon hearing of the death of a Muslim.

#### Indecency

Fornication (obscene act)

#### Individual prayer

Singly prayer (doing official prayer ritual alone)

#### Infidel ( Person with no belief in a religion)

Non-believer, pagan [disbelieves in the message of the Prophets. Since the advent of Muhammad (pbuh&hp), anyone who rejects his Message is a kafir.]There are a few things that make someone an infidel so you may find these Arabic words of interest: Kafir, Kufr, Mushrik, Shirk.

#### Injeel (انجيل)

The Injeel is the holy book, or Gospel, that Allah gave to Prophet Jesus (PBUH). In todays world this book does not exist, but there are parts and influences from it found in the New Testament and other Gospels that did not make it into the Canon of the New Testament but these parts are not easy to point out. The Injeel IS NOT the New Testament because the NT was written after Jesus and by 4 main writters (amongst many) - Peter, Mark, Luke & John. There is no 'Gospel of Jesus'.

See Injeel.

#### Inna (إنا)

'We are' or 'we have'.

#### Insan (إنسان)

A Person or Human.

#### Inshallah (إن شاء الله)

It could mean any one of the following variations: If Allah (God) wills; When Allah (God) wills; If Allah (God) wishes;

#### Insight

Intelligence, expert knowledge (the ability to perceive and understand the true nature of something.)

#### Intercession

Mediation, intercession (Islamic moral principle or set of principles)

#### Interest (ربا)

The Arabic word for Interest is Ribba.

#### Intihar (إنتحار)

Suicide.

Suicide is absolutely forbidden in Islam.

#### Intimate

Closer relative (someone with whom there can never be marriage because of consanguinity or affinity. For example, a father is a Mahram relative for a woman.)

#### Iqra (اقرء)

Saying 'Iqra' to someone is to order them to read. When Prophet Muhammed (SAW) was meditating in the cave of hiraa he was ordered to read by angel Jibraeel (Gabriel). Iqra was the first word of the Quran that came upon the Prophet (SAW).

The angel repeated the order: iqra! Read! as Muhammed explained he was unable to read, then Jibraeel said:
[96.1] Read in the name of your Lord Who created.
[96.2] He created man from a clot.
[96.3] Read and your Lord is Most Honorable,
[96.4] Who taught (man to write) with the pen
[96.5] Taught man what he knew not.
These are the first verses of the Quran that came down to the Prophet. Surprising isn't it!

#### Irhab (إرهاب)

Terrorism.

A terrorist is known as an Irhabi.

A terrorist.

#### Iron (حديد)

The Arabic word for Iron (Fe) is 'Hadeed'.

There is a Surah (Chapter) in the Quran called Al-Hadeed.

#### Isa (عيسى)

Isa is the name of Prophet Jesus (PBUH). Muslims believe Jesus was a Prophet without a father and the son of Mary the virgin (RA).

Almost as Adam had been created without a father or mother, Jesus Christ was born without a father. He was Allah's Word inspired to Mary. Allah gave him Clear Signs and endowed him with the Holy Spirit. He was held in honour both in this world and the Hereafter and in the company of those nearest to Allah. Jesus was strong in spirit, and very wise. Allah bestowed upon him the power to speak eloquently while still an infant in his cradle. Indeed, Jesus's miracles were innumerable. Allah taught him the Wisdom and Book, the Torah and the Gospel. Allah made him His Messenger to the Children of Israel. By Allah's leave, Jesus made the figure of a bird out of clay and breathed into it and it became a bird. He could, by Allah's leave, heal those born blind, lepers and even resurrect the dead. Jesus invited his people to worship Allah, the Only True God and obey Him as He should be obeyed; but they rejected him and rebelled. Only the poor among them followed him. Allah raised Jesus up unto Himself and saved him from those who plotted to crucify him.

#### Isaac (إسحاق)

Isaac is a Prophet, son of Prophet Abraham (PBUH). He is known as Is-haq in Arabic.

See Ishaa.

#### Ishaa (عشاء)

This word means night; It is also the name of an obligatory Prayer that is done at this time - Salat al ishaa. This prayer consists of four rakahs.

#### Ishaq (إسحاق)

Prophet Isaac (in English) was Abraham's son by his wife Sarah, and the father of Prophet Jacob. The tidings of his birth were given to his parents by the angels who had been sent to destroy the city of the people of Lot. The Holy Qur'an referred to Isaac as "a son endowed with wisdom." Isaac was sent as a Prophet to guide people to the right way.

#### Islam (إسلام)

(1) A monotheistic religion with the second largest following in the World.
(2) Submission (to the will of God).

The Arabic word 'Islam' simply means 'submission', and derives from a word meaning 'peace'. In a religious context it means complete submission to the will of God. 'Allah' is the Arabic name for God, which is used by Arab Muslims and Christians alike.

#### Islamic Calendar (التقويم الإسلامي)

The Islamic Calendar is 'Al-Taqweem al-Islami' in Arabic - it is often called the 'Hijri' Calendar because it is started from the 'Hijrah' (migration) of the Muslims from Makkah to Madina to escape persecution. This occurred in the year 620/621AC, so the current year 2008CE is 1429AH. AH means 'after hijrah'.
There are 12 months in the Islamic calendar and the names of these months are:
1. Muharram
2. Safar
3. Rabi al-Awal
4. Rabi al-Thani
7. Rajab
8. Shaban
10. Shawwal
11. Dhul Qidah
12. Dhul Hujjah
The calendar is based on the movements of the phases of the moon so it does not correlate perfectly with the Gregorian calendar which is based on the sun. There are 354 days in the lunar year (as a pose to 364 days in the solar year) and the Islamic months tend to start 10/11 days earlier than the solar year before so the start of the month is always changing - if the month of Ramadhan last year started on the 11th of October, we should expect it to start on the 1st of October next year.

#### Islamic laws

Islamic rules, Islamic regulations (Islamic commandments that every Muslim should respect them.)

#### Islamic upbringing

Islamic Education (Islamic training in order to respect religious desires.)

#### Ism (إسم)

The word 'ism' means 'name'. To say 'my name is Tom' in Arabic you say 'ismi Tom'.

#### Isma (عصمة)

Infallibility - being innocent of any sins.

#### Ismaeel (إسماعيل)

Ishmael (in English) was the first son of Prophet Ibraham (AS) by his second wife, Hajir (RA) (Hagar in English).

#### Ismail (إسماعيل)

See Ismaeel.

Has two meanings related to Hadith:

(1) Ascribing a hadeeth back to the one who said it - connecting the chain of narration;
(2) The chain of narrators which reaches back to the text - which is the same as "as-sanad".

#### Israeel (إسرائيل)

1) The Prophet Yaqoob (Jacob in English) was also called Israel which means "Servant of Allah".
2) The name of the country formed after world war two that is on occupied Palestinian land.
In the Quran the quote 'the Children of Israel' is read often but few people know that it means 'Descendants of Prophet Yaqoob'.

It is also rarely used as a name because Allah often mentions the descendants of Israel as sinners in the Quran, and the current political climate in the middle east makes it innapropriate since someone called Israel would be presumed to be a supporter of the illegal state.

#### Istighfar (استغفار)

to seek Allah's forgiveness. It is something that must be done continuously in a Muslims life.

#### Istiqbal (استقبال)

(1) The act of welcoming someone.
(2) The act of approaching someone.

The act of Martyrdom.

#### Ithim (إثم)

Ithim are negative points that you reap when you commit a sin. See Thawab for comparison.

### J

#### Jacob (يعقوب)

Jacob is the name of a Prophet known as Yaqoob in Arabic. Jacob is also known as Prophet Israeel.

Hell.

#### Jahil (جاهل)

(1) Refering to a person who is extremely ignorant and disbelieves in God. Often used to describe the people of the era that preceeded the revelation of the Qur'an, and the ignorant in general.
(2) A small child.

#### Jahiliyah (جاهليه)

Extreme ignorance (jahl) and disbelief in God. Often used to describe the era that preceeded the revelation of the Qur'an, and ignorance in general.

#### Jamal (جمال)

The word Jamal means Beauty. It is also a name that is suitable for both boys and girls.

Camel.

#### Jannah (جنه)

Usually means heaven/paradise, but can also refer to a wonderful garden. Jannah is also a popular girl's name.

#### Jazakallah (جزاك الله)

'May Allah grant you (goodness)'. Jazakallah Khair is the actual phrase in its entirity.

#### Jazakallah Khair (جزاك الله خير)

This is a popular phrase that people use to thank others. It literally means 'May Allah grant you goodness'.The actual word for thanks is shukran.

Neighbours.

See Jahanam.

#### Jesus (عيسى)

Jesus (PBUH) is the Anglicized name of a famous figure in religion. The Arabic form of this name used in the Quran is pronounced 'eesa' but often written as 'Isa'.

#### Jew (يهودي)

The Arabic word for Jew and Jewish is Yahudi.

#### Jezieh(Poll-tax)

Tribute (A Tax imposed on non-Muslims who are under Muslim rule, poll-tax anciently paid in lieu of conversion to Islam.)

#### Jibraeel(جبرائيل)

Jibraeel is the Arabic name for Gabrial, the angel of God.

(1) Personal Struggle (in the way of Allah (God) to keep evil away from yourself)
(2) Holy War (Fighting a fair, defensive war - to stop oppression)

There are two types of Jihad:
(1) The greater (akbar) Jihad - This is preserving ones-self from sin and disbelief.
(2) The lesser (asghar) Jihad - This is going to war to defend Islam, people, property or occupation of a Muslim or Islamic country.

#### Jilbaab (جلباب)

A woman's loose-fitting garment covering the entire body so it doesn't show the figure. It covers the body and requires a hijab in addition to cover the whole body (except the face and hands) to Islamic standard.

#### Jinn (جن)

A creature created by Allah (God) that was made from fire. They live in another dimension and don't usually enter our dimension.

#### Jizyah (جزيه)

The Jizyah is a tax payed by non-Muslims living in Islamic lands (a Thimmi) to the state. Through this tax they are exempt from the duties of Islam like military service and zakat and are protected by the state as well.

#### Job (أيوب)

(1) The word job, as in 'My job is ...', is 'shughul' in Arabic.
(2) Prophet Job is known as Prophet Ayyoob (PBUH) in Arabic.

The Arabic shown above is the name of the Prophet.

#### Jonah (يونس)

Prophet Jonah (PBUH) is known as Yunus or Dhun-Nun in Arabic.
The Arabic word shown is for Yunus.

#### Jordan (‏الأردن)

Official Name: Hashemite kingdom of Jordan.
In Arabic this country is called 'Urdun'.

Capital: Amman.

#### Joseph (يوسف)

Joseph is the name of a Prophet, known as Yusuf in Arabic.

#### Judicious

Prudent(ly) (judging wisely, showing good sens)

#### Jumaa (جمعه)

Jum'a means Friday. This is the Muslim holy day much like the Jews have Saturday, and the Christians Sunday, as their holy days. Muslims go to the Mosque (Masjid) to pray the Jum'a prayer (a special friday prayer) in congretion.

See Jum'a.

#### Jurisprudence

Divine law, canonical law (the science of jurisprudence or interpreting the Shari'a)

#### Justifications

Good or sufficient reasons ( persons, statements or acts etc. show something are right or Just.)

#### Juzuu (جزء)

The Quran is split into 30 parts with each part known as a juzu. Juzu just means 'part'.

### K

#### Kaaba (كعبه)

A square stone building in Al-Masjid-al-Haram (the well-known mosque at Makka). Muslims line up in prayer facing towards this direction. It is covered by a large black cloth embroidered with gold thread to display Quranic verses.

See Kaaba.

See Kaaba.

Big or large.

See Kabeer.

See Kafi.

#### Kafir (كافر)

Generally the word kafir means 'unbeliever' and it is not meant as a derogatory label (unless it is used against Muslims by another Muslim). Of course, there are different levels of Kufur (disbelief) so although a person may be correctly identified as a kafir, that person is not kafir in the strongest sense of the word. Absolute kufur is the denial of God. Here are some examples of kufur:

(1) A person is known as a Kafir if they are disbelievers in Allah, in His Oneness, and in His final Messenger, Muhammad (SAW). (E.g. An apostate from Islam)
(2) A 'Muslim' who disbelieves in a necessary tenant of Islam like the 5 pillars or some other things is known as a disbeliever.
(3) An originally non-Muslim person who denies the religion of Islam while knowing in his heart that it is true.
(4) A disbeliever in Islam only because they originally follow another (monotheistic) faith.
(5) A person who follows another (monotheistic) faith and knows nothing about Islam.
(6) A person who believes in many gods (polytheist).
(7) An agnostic who is a monotheist is a lesser kafir than a polytheist.
(8) An Atheist - ultimate kufur.

Generally a Christian or Jew is not identified as a kafir but they are known respectfully as Ahlul kitab - People of the Book(s), and Islam considers their religions valid but once they find Islam they are expected to follow the updated covenant sent by God.

وَإِذْ قُلْنَا لِلْمَلاَئِكَةِ اسْجُدُواْ لآدَمَ فَسَجَدُواْ إِلاَّ إِبْلِيسَ أَبَى وَاسْتَكْبَرَ وَكَانَ مِنَ الْكَافِرِينَ

And behold, We said to the angels: "Bow down to Adam" and they bowed down. Not so Iblis: he refused and was haughty: He was of those who reject Faith. [Quran 2.34]

Notice the use of the word 'kafireen' in the Arabic. This is one of the reasons why one must learn Arabic to understand the full meaning of the Quran, the words of Allah. Kafir is derived from the word meaning 'to cover' and Kafir also means 'disbeliever in God'. But in this case, Iblees (Satan) is fully aware of Gods' existence and power yet he is still described as a kafir! This goes to show that a person can be a kafir even if he believes in a God. In other words, just because someone believes there is a God, that someone can still be a kafir and be (technically) condemned to hell. Therefore, a kafir can be more correctly defined as someone who 'rejects submission to God' even though he is fully aware of His existence, as well as meaning a person who is a true Atheist - one who 'rejects the existence of God'.

#### Kafireen (كافرين)

This plural word means 'unbelievers'. It is derived from the singular word 'kafir'.

#### Kafiroon (كافرون)

This plural word means 'unbelievers'. It is derived from the singular word 'kafir'.

See Kafir.

#### Kaif (كيف)

'How', or 'How is...' or 'How did...'.

#### Kalam (كلام)

Kalam means speech (spoken words).

#### Kalimah (كلمة)

(1) The Kalimah, also known as The Shahadah, is the name of a phraze a person must say in order to become a Muslim.

(2) Kalimah means 'word'.

#### Karbala (كربلاء)

Kerbala is a word made formed of two words, 'ker' means anguish and 'bala' means vexation. Karbala is a city in Iraq. It is where Imam Hussain (AS) (and his family and companions), grandson of Prophet Muhammed (SAW) was slaughtered by the army of the Khalif (leader) of the time, Yazeed bin Muawiyah.

#### Kareem (كريم)

The word Kareem means 'generous'. It is a popular boy's name.

See Kareem.

A liar.

Many/a lot.

#### Kayf Halek (كيف حالك)

When an Arabic speaking person greets you and asks kayfa halek? He is saying 'how is your health?' or 'how are you?'.

See Kufr.

dog

#### Khabeeth (خبيث)

An evil or sickening person or thing.

Cheek.

Khadijah is an old Arabic name for girls. The Prophet Muhammed (SAW) married Khadijah bint Khwaylid (RA), his first wife. She was the first person to become a Muslim - the first person to become a Muslim was a woman!

#### Khair (خير)

Good or Goodness.

#### Khalas (خلص)

Khalas means 'enough','stop' or 'end'. It is popularly used as a phraze akin to the English phraze 'All right-then'.

#### Khalid (خالد)

Khalid is a popular boy's name. It means content and happy.

#### Khalif (خليف)

Khalif (pronounced Khaleef) means successor. A Khalif is a leader of the Muslim Ummah (nation/peoples). After Prophet Muhammed (pbuh&hp) died there came after him numerous khalifs (successors) who were called Khalifs (Khaleefs).

The famous first four Khalifs are:

1 - Abu Bakr bin Abu Qahafa (RA)
2 - Umar bin al-Khataab (RA)
3 - Uthman bin Afaan (RA)
4 -Imam Ali ibn Abi Talib (AS), AmirUl-Mo'menin

They are titled Al Khulafa' ar-Rashideen - The Rightly-guided Leaders.

Subsequent leaders were also called Khalifs as they had rulership of the whole Islamic Ummah (nation/peoples). Each khalif was titled 'Ameer al-Mu'mineen' (Commander of the Faithful) even though this title was given to Imam Ali by the Prophet exclusively.

The Khalifate issue is quite controversial as the purpose of leadership was to manage the Muslim Ummah. The Shia Muslims argue and state that the Prophet (SAW) chose Ali ibn Abi Talib (AS) to be the leader after his departure and his sons after him, as an order by Allah.

#### Khalifah (خليفه)

The Muslim Ummah's (nation/peoples) Leadership. Also see Khalif.

#### Khaliq (خالق)

Khaliq means 'Creator', and Al-Khaliq (The Creator) is one of the names of God, as He is the supreme Creator.

#### Khamr (خمر)

Drink containing Alcohol. Usually refering to beer. Alcoholic drinks are forbidden in Islam.

#### Kharaj(tax)

land revenue, land tax, paying allegiance, tribute (a country's annual income from lands taxes)

Fear or fright.

See Khair.

A Pig.

#### Khilafah (خلافه)

The Caliphate system - The leadership system of the Muslim nation (ummah). See Khalif.

A type of cloak.

#### Khuda Hafiz (خدا حافظ)

This is an Urdu/Farsi language phrase which means goodbye. It literally means 'God Protect'.

The 'z' on the end of the word should actually be 'dh' instead because that is how it is written, but people have difficulty pronouncing this properly so they take a shortcut and convert 'dh' to 'z'. This phenomenon is seen throughout the language.

#### Khulafa (خلفاء)

The word 'khulafa' is the plural of the word khalif.

#### Khurooj (خروج)

An exit, leaving or emergence.

#### Khushuu (خشوع)

Khushu' means deep reverence and devotion (in prayer to God).

#### Khutbah (خطبه)

A speech or sermon. It is mostly used to refer to the sermon given during the Friday congregational (Jamaa) prayer.

#### King (ملك)

Melik is the Arabic word for King. Al-Melik (The [supreme] King) is one of the names of God.

Book.

#### Knowledge (علم)

The Arabic word for knowledge is 'ilm'.

See Quran.

#### Kuffar (كفار)

Kuffar is the plural of the word Kafir. It means 'unbelievers'.

#### Kuffur (كفر)

The word kuffur means 'disbelief'. E.g. Associating partners in worship with God is considered an act of kuffur.

Kuffur comes from the root word 'kafir'.

#### Kufr (كفر)

The action of showing ungratefulness to Allah and disbelief in Him and His Prophets. One who does this is known as a kafir.

#### Kurdi (كردي)

A person is known as a kurdi to identify their ethnicity as being descended from Kurdish lineage.

A Chair.

### L

No.

#### La Hawla Wala Quwwata Ila Billah (لا حول ولا قوة إلا بالله)

This is a common phrase that literally means 'There is no change nor power except by means of God'. This expression is often said when a Muslim is seized by a calamity or situation beyond their control.

#### La Ilaha Ilallah (لا اله الا لله)

There is no (other) God except Allah.

#### La Raib (لا ريب)

La raib means 'no doubt (therein)'. You will find the phraze in the Holy Quran in Surat Al-Baqarah (Chapter of The Cow) in the second verse: [2.2] This Book (Quran), there is no doubt in it, is a guide to those who guard (against evil).

#### Lah (لا)

Lah (also spelt La) means 'No'.

Night.

#### Lament ( Feel or express great sorrow or regret for sb/sth)

Mourning, sorrow (a passionate expression of grief).

#### Language (لغة)

The Arabic word for language is 'lugha'.

#### Late...

Deceased, defunct, of blessed memory (no longer alive)

See Lawh.

#### Law (قانون)

The Arabic word for law is qanoon.

#### Lawh (لوح)

Lawh or lauh, means 'screen' or 'record'. In Islamic terms the 'lawh', called the 'lauh al mahfoodh' - the protected record - is the record that is written by angels that documents your actions on earth with everything you did, thought or felt, and this record will be used to argue the case for & against you on judgement day.

#### Laws of the Shari'ah:

Canonical , legal, lawful, religious (the rules and regulations of Islam, the divine Law. Shari'ah is the totality of of Allah's Commandments relating to man's activities.)

#### Layal (ليال)

Layal is the plural of layl. Layal means nights.

Night.

#### Lending

loan, borrow [give or allow the use of ( a thing ) temporarily on the understanding that it or its equivalent will be returned. Have the loan of.]

#### Letter (رساله)

The Arabic word for letter is 'risalah'.

#### Liar (كذاب)

The Arabic word for liar (one who tells untruths) is Kathaab.

#### Life (حياة)

Life is hayat in Arabic.

#### Light (نور)

The Arabic word for light is 'noor'.

Beard.

Why?

#### Lion (أسد)

The Arabic word for lion is asad, which is also used as a name for males.

#### Live (عايش)

1) Live, as in "live on BBC News", is Mubashir.
(2) Live, for life, varies based on usage:
• eesh - An order to live.
• ayish - he is living.
• aysha - She is living.
• asha - he used to live...
• ashet - she used to live...

The Arabic word shown is for ayish.

#### Look (انضر)

The Arabic word for 'look', used in the form of an order, is 'Undhur'.

See Lut.

#### Lord (رب)

The Arabic word for Lord is 'Rab' (pronounced a bit like 'rub').

#### Lubnan (لبنان)

Lubnan is the Arabic name for the country of Lebanon.

Language.

#### Lut (لوط)

Prophet Lot (in English) was Abraham's nephew. Allah sent him to a transgressing people who used to commit abominable acts and indulge in their lusts with men rather than women. (Homosexuals).

Lot frequently preached to them to abandon such heinous crimes and come to the right course of Allah, but they never obeyed him. Being disappointed in them, Lot prayed Allah to destroy them, but save the believers among them. Because Lot's wife was apparently not a believer, her previous sympathy for the sinful people destined her to a miserable end along with her people.

### M

Water.

#### Maasalama (مع السلامه)

Maasalama, also spelt ma'asalama or ma3asalama, means '(farewell) with peace'. Many Arabic speakers say this phrase like an English speaker would say Goodbye.

#### Mabrook (مبروك)

This word means '(You are) blessed'. It is a commonly-used word said to someone who has received something good. It is a means of congratulation.

Madad is an Urdu word meaning 'help' (us).

Creed or sect.

Oppressed. Someone is madhloom if they have been opressed by a dhalim (oppressor).

#### Madina (المدينة المنورة‎)

Madina means 'city' or 'town', but in Islam the word Madina is actually the name of a city that the Prophet Muhammed (pbuh&hp) migrated to from Mecca. It was previously called Yathrib but was changed to 'Madina al-Munawarah' (The light-filled city) in honor of the Prophet's arrival. It was thus called Madina from thereon as the short form of the name. Madina lies north of Mecca.

The Arabic true form shown says 'al-madina al-Munawara'.

#### Madina Al Munawara (المدينة المنورة)

(1) Madinah means city or town in Arabic.
(2) A city that is approximately 250 miles away from the city of Makkah where the Prophet (SAW) arrived at following the Hijrah (migration) from Makkah to Madina. The Prophet set up the first Islamic state there.

School.

#### Maghrib (مغرب)

(1) Maghrib is the time of day when the sun goes down and night begins to take over.
(2) It is also the name of one of the compulsory (wajib) prayers which is often prayed after the sun has descended.
(3) The Arabic name of the country of Morocco.

The word maghrib comes from the root word ghuroob which means 'setting'. The country of Morocco was called Maghrib as the other root word 'gharb' means 'west' as it is the west-most Muslim country.

#### Mahal (محل)

(1) A shop.
(2) A place or location for an object.

#### Mahboob (محبوب)

A descriptive word meaning 'loved' or 'loveable'.

#### Mahdi (المهدي)

Mahdi means 'guided one'. Often refered to as Imam Mahdi, or Al-Mahdi, it is the nickname name of a very important person in Islam who will have the real name: Muhammed. He is yet to be born according to the majority of Sunni Muslims, but is alive at this very moment according to the majority of Shia Muslims, but his identity is not know (i.e. He is in occulation).

It is said he will accompany Prophet Jesus (AS) when he returns and will rid the world of evil, eventually bringing peace & harmony after the great wars.

Mahdi is also a popular boy's name.

#### Mahfoodh( محفوظ)

Depending on its' use, this word could mean either 'protected', 'wrapped' or 'learnt by heart'.

#### Mahr (مهر)

The mahr is an amount of money or property that is given to the wife by the husband as a non-returnable dowry in the marriage contract. She may use it as she wishes.

#### Mahram (محرم)

A mahram is a male, whom a woman can never marry because of close relationship (e.g. a brother, a father, a sibling); The mahram can be thought of as a guardian she can call upon when neccessary if she is not married, but if she is then her own husband is her mahram when he is available. A woman need not wear hijab in front of her mahram and a mahram is usually needed for travelling long distances in safety.

#### Majlis (مجلس)

A Majlis is a program of speaches and other activities (usually at a mosque).

#### Makkah (مكه)

The holy city of Makkah is situated in Saudi Arabia and is the birth place of Prophet Muhammed (SAW). Prophet Ibraheem (PBUH) built the Kaaba there and Muslims go to do Hajj (pilgramage) there.

#### Makrooh (مكروه)

Means disliked, hated or detested. It is used in reference to actions and deeds that are refered to negativly in the sunnah or the Quran. These actions will not get you ithim, but avoiding them will gain you thawab. Doing makrooh things is not recommended. E.g. growing long finger nails.

See Makrooh.

#### Maktoob (مكتوب)

The word maktoob means 'it is written / it was written'. People use the phrase to imply that they were predestined to have something happen to them. Belief in fate (non-absolute fate) is mandatory in Islam.

#### Malak (ملاك)

Malak means angel. It can be used as a name for either a boy or a girl, but it should be noted that Angels are not feminine.

#### Malakul Mawt (ملك الموت)

The Angel of Death, called Azraeel in Islam.

#### Malik (مالك)

(1) Malik means owner or master of an object. Malik is a popular boy's name.

#### Man (رجل)

The Arabic word for man is rajul.

#### Manahil (مناهل)

Manahil can mean springs or founts (of water, knowldge, etc.). It is a popular girl's name amongst Asians.

#### Mareedh (مريض)

Ill and in bad health.

#### Marhaba (مرحبا)

This is a traditional Arabic greeting meaning 'Welcome'.

See Maryam.

#### Marje (مرجع)

A Marje' is a grand scholar of Islam who is allowed to give rulings. Muslims follow (do taqleed of) the rulings of this highly-educated person because they are doctors of religion and most people lack the education to know all the rulings of Islam.

A Marje' can also be known as a Grand Mufti or Grand Ayatollah.

#### Marriage (نكاح)

The Arabic word for marriage is Nikah.

#### Martyr (شهيد)

The Arabic word for Martyr is Shaheed.
Shaheed is whoes death or great suffering is in support of a belief ( Islam ).

#### Martyrdom

Undergoing death or great suffering in support of a belief ( Islam .

#### Mary (مريم)

The Arabic form of this popular girls' name is 'maryam'.

"Mary", written the same way it sounds in English is ماري

#### Maryam (مريم)

Maryam is the Arabic word for the name Mary. Maryam (AS) was the mother of Prophet Isa (Jesus) (PBUH). Maryam is regarded as being one of the four greatest created women. Maryam is a very popular girl's name.

Wipe or wiping.

#### Masail (مسائل)

Masa,il is a plural word meaning 'questions'. The singular is su'al.

#### Masajid (مساجد)

Masajid is a plural word meaning Mosques (Muslim places of worship). A single mosque is known as a Masjid.

#### Mashallah (ماشاءالله)

Literally means 'Whatever Allah (God) wills'. It is often used in occasions where there is surprise in someones' good deeds or achievements. For example people say Mashallah when someone does very well in their exams.

#### Masjid (مسجد)

A building designated for prayer. Called "Mosque" in English.

#### Masoom (معصوم)

The word ma'soom is often equated with the English word Infallible which means incapable of error. However, people who are described as ma'soom do not make errors or commit sins, but they have the ability to make errors and commit sins.

Many Muslims say the Prophets (PBUT) are masoom but the Shia also say the members of Ahlulbayt are masoom in addition to the Prophets. It is part of their 'aqueedah.

#### Masoomeen (معصومين)

Ma'soomeen is a plural word meaning infallibles - persons free from sin. The singular word is ma'soom.

#### Masr

Masr is another pronunciation of the word Misr, which is the Arabic name for the country of Egypt.

#### Mathhab (مذهب)

A school of thought, direction, manner, mode.

Mathhabs arrise due to different interpretations of the Quran, Sunnah and for political reasons. The word mathhab and sect can be thought of in the same way usually, but there is a difference because there can be different mathhabs within the same sect. Examples of Mathhabs include Shia, Sunni, wahabi, salafi, deobandi etc. A muslim should not follow a mathhab when it contradicts clear proof in the Quran and Sunnah.

#### Matthew

Matthew is an English name meaning 'Gift of God'.

#### Maula (مولى)

Lord, Master, Helper, Protector, Supporter, Patron. Not usually used in referance to God.

#### Mawared (موارد)

The plural of mawrid, and it means 'sources'.

#### Mawla (مولى)

Master, lord, leader etc.
See Wali.

#### Mawlana (مولانا)

A form of address to a ruler or person of authority implying protector.

#### Mawlid (مولد)

Birth or birthday.

Source.

Death.

#### Meat (لحم)

The Arabic word for meat is Laham.

See Makkah.

Birth day.

#### Meezan (ميزان)

A weighing scale used to measure weights. In Islam the meezan is a hypothetical scale used to measure good deeds against bad deeds on Judgement day.

The following surah (The Calamity) in the Quran mentions the concept of weighing of deeds on the scales:
[101.1] The terrible calamity!
[101.2] What is the terrible calamity!
[101.3] And what will make you comprehend what the terrible calamity is?
[101.4] The day on which men shall be as scattered moths,
[101.5] And the mountains shall be as loosened wool.
[101.6] Then as for him whose measure of good deeds is heavy,
[101.7] He shall live a pleasant life.
[101.8] And as for him whose measure of good deeds is light,
[101.9] His abode shall be the abyss.
[101.10] And what will make you know what it is?
[101.11] A burning fire.

#### Michael (ميكائيل)

Michael is the name of an Angel known as Mikaeel in Arabic.

#### Mihrab (محراب)

A mihrab is commonly found in traditional mosques. It is a prayer niche where the Imam stands to lead the prayers and it shows the direction of the Qibla. It is usually built by digging out a concave pillar shape from the wall. It is then decorated in all sorts of beautiful Islamic art designs.

#### Mikaeel (ميكائيل)

Mikaeel (Michael) is the name of one of God's very important Angels. One thing he is known for is bringing a plate of heavens' fruits to Prophet Muhammed (SAW) the night Fatimah (AS), the Prophet's daughter was conceived.

From.

#### Mina (منا)

During Hajj (pilgramage) the town of Mina must be visited. It is about five miles away from Makkah.

#### Minbar (منبر)

A minbar is an object commonly found in traditional mosques. The Imam of the Mosque goes up the stairs and sits (or stands) from the seat at the top so that he can preach a sermon. It is a lot like a pulpit which is found in traditional Christian churches.

Minbars come in different designs but the most common are wooden ones that have Islamic art carved into them.

#### Misbah (مصباح)

Lantern or torch.

#### Mischief

Vice, evil [conduct (especially of children ) that is annoying or does slight damage but is not malicious. A tendency to tease or cause annoyance playfully.]

#### Misguidance

Misleding,aberration [leading astray, causing ( a person ) to gain a wrong impression of something, State of being miss led].

#### Miskeen (مسكين)

A person is described as being miskeen if they are poor & needy, in need of certain necessities to stop them from going hungry and/or perishing.

#### Misr (مصر)

Misr is the Arabic name used for the country of Egypt.

#### Miswak (مسواك)

The miswak is the natural equivalent of the toothbrush. It is a short twig with frayed bristles that is used to brush the teeth and it is made from the twigs of the Salvadora persica (Peelu or Arak) tree.

The Prophet (SAW) highly recommended using the miswak to clean the teeth. The miswak has a natural anti-bacterial effect and decreases tooth decay and improves the odour of the mouth. It is recommended to use the miswaq (even if you have a modern toothbrush) before praying as it is stated in hadith that the reward for the prayer will be increased 70-fold.

See Muhammed.

#### Moon (قمر)

The Arabic word for moon is 'Qamar'. A crescent moon is known as a 'hilal'

See Musa.

#### Moral perfection

Virtuous (moral excellence, goodness)

#### Morality and self-perfection

Ethics, morals (moral principles or rules, Islamic system or particular system of morals)

#### More (أكثر)

The Arabic word for 'more' is Akthar.

#### Morocco (مغرب)

Official Name: Kingdom of Morocco.
In Arabic, the country is called 'Maghrib'.
Capital: Rabat.

#### Mortgage

Pawning [give someone a claim on (property) as security for payment of a debt or loan, deposited ( a thing ) with a pawn broker as security for money borrowed.]

#### Mosque (مسجد)

The Arabic word for mosque is masjid.

#### Mother (أم)

The Arabic word for mother is 'umm'. See Umm for more information.

To say 'Your mother' to a man, you say 'ummek'.
To say 'Your mother' to a woman, you say 'ummik'.

Teacher.

#### Muawiyah (معاويه)

Muawiyah was one of the companions (sahabah) of Prophet Muhammed (SAW). He managed to become the fifth Khalif (leader) after rebeling against the leadership of Imam Ali (AS) and taking the throne as leader of the Muslim Ummah (nation). Muawiyah had a son called Yazid who Muawiyah made the Khalif after him.

#### Mubah (مباح)

Mubah is one of the classifications of an action according to Islamic Jurisprudence (fiqh). It means 'permitted based on individuals whim'. This category is left undecided and without a ruling by scholar so it is left for the person to decide for themselves if they do things such as eating apples or oranges. Doing or not doing the Mubah does not count as a good or bad deed.

Blessed.

#### Muedhin (مؤذن)

A muedhin is a person who does the call to prayer, the Athan. This call to prayer is said loudly so that others become aware that the congretional prayers are about to begin.

See Muedhin.

#### Mufti (مفتي)

A mufti is a person who presents the laws and fiqh of the scholars to people who ask for them. They should not give their own opinion but they should present the arguments and laws of the maraje' (grand Muftis or Ayatollahs). Most muftis are found in Saudi Arabia and Iran. The word mufti is derived from the word fatwa and it means 'one who gives fatwas'.

A mufti cannot allow people to follow his own opinions, but the mufti can follow his own opinions. A grand Mufti is a higher ranking Mufti that is followed by a large group of people. This is a lot like an Ayatollah found in Shia Islam. Some countries have their own Mufti to decree the opinion of the state.

#### Muhajjibah (محجبه)

A woman who is veiled - wears a hijab.

#### Muhammed (محمد)

The name of the final Prophet of Islam. He is deeply revered and is always given a blessing after mention of his name - peace be upon him - which is given acronyms like (SAW) or (PBUH). Many Muslims use the name for their male children.

We have to know and understand who this man (Muhammed) is, for it is through him the final revelation descended from the Lord and it is through him we will know more than just what Islam is or what religion is. It is through him we will discover who Allah (God) is and thus who we are, our purpose or goal in this life and how to achieve enlightenment.

#### Muharram (محرم)

(1) Muharram is the first month of the Islamic Calendar. This month is considered a month of mourning by the Shia (and many Sunni) Muslims due to the murder of the Grandson of Prophet Muhammed (PBUH&HP), Imam Hussain (PBUH).
(2) Muharram can mean 'made forbidden'.

Muharram is so-called because it was the main month designated by the pre-Islam Arabs as a month where war was forbidden. They didn't usually follow their own rules and they even made an agreement where they would observe the law on year and the

The plural of Mujahid.

#### Mujahid (مجاهد)

A person who does Jihad.

#### Mujtahid (مجتهد)

A Mujtahid is a very educated Muslim makes up his own ruling on the permissibility of an Islamic law but only for himself.

#### Mulakim (ملاكم)

Fighter (not military).

#### Mumin (مؤمن)

A mu'min is a faithful and religious believer in Islam and its laws.

#### Mumineen (مؤمنين)

Mu'mineen is the plural of the word "Mu'min". It means '(devout) believers'.

#### Mumkin (ممكن)

(1) Possible, or Yes you can.
(2) Can I..., or Is is possible...

#### Mumtaz (ممتاز)

Excellent or brilliant.

Hypocrite.

#### Munafiqeen (منافقين)

Plural of hypocrite - Many hypocrites.

#### Munawarah (منوره)

Munawarrah means light-filled. Al Madina al Munawarah in Saudi Arabia is the Light-filled city that Prophet Muhammed (PBUH&HP) emigrated to and it was called the light-filled city in honor of the Prophet coming to it. It was previously known as Yathrib.

#### Munkar (منكر)

(1) Doing munkar is doing an action associated with wrong-doing, evil-doing, sins, polytheism, disbelief, etc.
(2) Munkar is the name of one of two Angels (Munkar & Nakir) who question people in their graves. This is done while a person is in the state of barzakh.

#### Muqawama (مقاومه)

Muqawama means active resistance against aggression.

#### Muraqabah (مراقبة)

Muraqabah comes from the word raqib, which means to follow, watch, keep tags-on.

A murtad is a person who leaves the religion (apostacy) and conspires against it.

Murtadha, sometimes spelt 'Murtaza', is a popular boy's name. It means agreeable.

#### Musa (موسى)

Prophet Moses' name in Arabic.

Moses was sent to call Pharaoh (the ruler of Egypt) and his people to believe in the Oneness of Allah. He was strengthened by a number of miracles. Allah instructed Moses to throw down his staff which miraculously turned into a huge snake and swallowed all the snakes which the magicians of Pharaoh had made appear. Moses was also instructed to put his hand in his pocket, and it came forth radiantly white, without stain. The Pharaoh promised severe punishments to the followers of Moses. Moses was commanded to leave Egypt with his people (the Jews) by night. Moses's followers were to cross the Red Sea towards Sinai in a huge procession. They were reassured not to fear the Pharaoh, nor the sea, nor the vast unknown desert of Sinai into which they were venturing. They crossed the Red Sea - after Moses struck the sea with his miraculous staff and it split into dry passage - while the Pharaoh, who had pursued them with his troops, was overwhelmed by the sea and perished.

#### Mushaf (مصحف)

(1) Any Book, even ones that are not religious.
(2) A copy of the Quran. This is the most common meaning.

#### Mushrik (مشرك)

Polytheist, pagan, idolater, disbeliever in the Oneness of Allah, a person who worships others along with Allah, and also those who set up rivals with (or partners to) Allah.

#### Mushrikoon (مشركون)

Polytheists, pagans, idolaters, disbelievers in the Oneness of Allah, those who worship others along with Allah, and also those who set up rivals with (or partners to) Allah.

Mushrikoon is the same as Mushrikeen.

#### Music (مسيقة)

The Arabic word for music is 'Museeqah'.span id=

#### Muslim (مسلم)

(1) A follower of the religion of Islam.
(2) A person who submits their will to God and believes in Him.

#### Muslimah (مسلمه)

A female follower of the religion of Islam.

Often the 'h' on the end of the word is not pronounced and it is therefore written as muslima as well.

#### Mustahab (مستحب)

A recommended form of worship or action. Doing a mustahab activity will be rewarded by Allah but not doing a Mustahab activity will not be considered sinful. E.g. Reading Quran daily.
Most mustahab acts have greater benefit/reward (thawab) than mandatory (wajib) activities.

#### Mustapha (مصطفى)

Mustapha, sometimes spelt 'Mustafa', is a popular boy's name. It is one of Prophet Muhammed's (SAW) names. It means 'guided' as Muhammed is the guided one.

The future.

#### Mutaqi (متقي)

A pious and righteous person who fears Allah much (abstains from all kinds of sins and evil deeds which Allah has forbidden) and loves Allah much (performs all kinds of good deeds which Allah and his Messenger (SAW) have ordained).

#### Mutawattir (متوتر)

Literally means "succession, consecutive." Islamically refers to hadith which is narrated by such a large number of people that it is impossible (Allahu Alim (God is all-knowing)) that they have invented a lie.Its conditions include:

(1) That it be narrated by a large number of people. Scholars differ about the actual number required
(2) That this number is found in every level of the isnaad
(3) That it is impossible that they could have gathered together upon a lie.

#### Muttahirah (مطهرة)

Purified (ritually).

See Mutaqoon.

#### Muttaqoon (متقون)

Pious and righteous persons who fear Allah much (abstain from all kinds of sins and evil deeds which Allah has forbidden) and love Allah much (perform all kinds of good deeds which Allah and his Messenger (SAW) have ordained).

#### Muwahid (موحد)

A person who declares the singleness of God is known as a muwahid - a monotheist.

#### My

There is no direct Arabic word for 'my'. Instead, to identify something as a possesion of your own, you add an 'i' after the word.
For example, the sentence 'Hatha kelb' means 'This is a dog'. If the sentence is altered to 'Hatha kelbi' it means 'This is my dog'.

#### My Name Is ( ...اسمي)

"My Name is ..." is "Ismee ..." in Arabic.

### N

Yes.

#### Naar (نار)

It means fire but is usually used in referance to the fires of hell (Jahanam).

#### Naas (ناس)

Naas is the plural of the word insan. Naas means 'people'.

Prophet.

#### Nafillah (نافلة)

Nafillah is the name given to a set of defined mustahab (recommended) prayers that precede the 5 wajib (obligatory) daily prayers. There is also a nafillah prayer that precedes the recommended tahujjud prayer, so effectively it is a mustahab prayer that becomes part of another mustahab prayer.

Soul or self.

#### Nahj (نهج)

Peak. Nahj usually comes in a sentance as part of the title of a famous book called Nahj al Balaghah - The Peak of Eloquence. This book contains beautifully worded sermons narrated by Imam Ali (AS).

#### Najah (نجاح)

Najah means success, and it has been used as a boy's name.

#### Najasah (نجاسه)

An impurity - something that will cause a person to become ritually impure and require some type of ritual wash to make the individual 'clean' again. For example, urine is a source of najasah. Urine is najis.

#### Najis (نجس)

Ritually impure/unclean. eg. Blood and urine are najis.

A star.

#### Nakir (نكير)

Nakir is the name of one of the two Angels (Nakir & Munkar) who question a person in their graves when they die and they are in the state of Barzakh.

#### Namaz (نماز)

Namaz is the Urdu word for Prayer. It is used by a large number of non-Arabic speakers and even by people who do not speak Urdu. In Arabic, prayer is known as salat.

#### Name (إسم)

The Arabic word for 'name' is 'isim'.

See Naar.

See Naas.

See Nasir.

#### Nasheed (نشيد)

A religiously themed song, much like a song of praise, but usually sung without any musical instruments accompanying the performance. Often background tone is derived from numerous people mimicking instruments by humming in tune.

#### Nasir (ناصر)

Nasir means 'one who is victorious'. It is a popular boy's name.

Other forms and spellings of this word are Naseer, Naser and Nasser.

Victory.

See Nasir

#### Naudhubillah (نعوذ با لله)

This phrase means 'We seek refuge in Allah (from evil)'. Without the n at the beginning it means 'I seek refuge in Allah (from evil)'. It is a short form of a longer phrase: Naudhubillah min al-Shaytan al-Rajeem - I seek refuge in Allah from the accursed Satan.

See Niyyah.

#### Negligent persons

heedlessnes persons (persons who omit to do something ,e.g. through carelessness or forgetfulness)

#### Niah (نيه)

Niah (or nia) means intention.

#### Nice (حلو)

The Arabic word for nice is Hilloo.

Hypocracy.

#### Night (ليل)

The Arabic word for night is 'Layl'.

#### Nikah (نكاح)

Islamic marriage.

#### Nikkah (نكاح)

Nikkah means Marriage.

Another word is zawaj.

#### Niqab (نقاب)

A piece of cloth that covers the face except the eye. It is an addition to the standard hijab and is mainly practiced by women in Saudia Arabia and those who follow the Wahabi beliefs.

Women.

See Niyyah.

#### Niyyah (نية)

Niyyah means 'intention'. If someone intends to do a good deed but his actions are cut short due to no fault of his/her own, then they still get the thawab (plus points) for it as if they had succeeded.

#### No (لا)

The English word 'No' in Arabic is 'La'.

#### Noah (نوح)

Noah (PBUH) is a Prophetic name. The Arabic form of this name is Nuh (pronounced Nooh).

#### Nobility

Gentleness, chastity (nobleness of mind, character or rank).

See Nuh.

#### Noor (نور)

Light. Noor is also a popular girl's name.

See Noora.

#### Nuh (نوح)

Nuh (also spelt Nooh) (PBUH) is a Prophet of God known as Noah in English. His people continually disobeyed him and refused to worship God so He sent them a flood and killed the people in that valley. Nuh, his family (except for his son and wife) and some animals escaped the flood and were saved because God had instructed them to build an Ark.

See Noor.

### O

#### Obligatory

Necessity by the law of Shari'a (required by law, rule, or custom; compulsory not optional.)

See Umar.

See umar.

#### One (واحد)

The Arabic word for 'one' is wahid.

#### Oppressed people

Wronged people (who has governed harshly / treated with continual cruelty or injustice.)

#### Oratory

Rhetoric (the art of using words impressively)

See Uthman.

### P

#### Pak (پاك)

Ritually pure. (Tahir in Arabic).

Although it is an Urdu word it is used by all sorts of people who are not Arab. Even the Persians use this word. The first letter of the word is not native to the Arabic language, so it is usually replaced with the Arabic 'baa' letter. The true type version shown is with the person 'pe' letter.

#### Palestine (فلسطين)

Palestine is a country in the Middle East and is currently occupied by the illegal state of Israel. Arabs call this country philisteen.

The common English word used to refer to Jannah.

#### Particular Islamic customs

Special Islamic disciplines (special Islamic way of behaving or of doing something)

#### Partnership of Capital and Labo

A contract of co-partnership (be share with another or others in capital and labor).

#### Patience (صبر)

The Arabic word for patience is sabr.

#### Peace (سلام)

The Arabic word for peace is 'Salam'. Salam is also the Muslim greeting, like Hello.

#### Peace Be Upon Him

'Peace Be Upon Him' is an English phraze that is said as a sign of respect after mentioning a Prophet. Islam requires we love and respect all the Prophets and saying this after their name is one sign of reverance. The common acronym for this phraze is (PBUH).

#### Piety

fearing God, God wariness, abstinence (piousness)

#### Pilgrim (حجي)

The Arabic word for someone who has made pilgrimage (hajj) to Mekkah is 'hajji' if they are male, or 'hijjiyah' if they are female.

The Arabic shown is for hajji. The female form is حجيه

#### Pilgrimage

Visiting the holy places, visit (a journey made to a place as a mark of respect).

#### Pilgrimage (حج)

The Arabic word for pilgrimage is 'Hajj'.

#### pious

Righteous, guardian against evil,ascetic (devout in religion, too virtuous, sanctimonious).

#### Pious men

Virtuouses (who are too virtuous)

Imploring for help, supplication (make an appeal or entreaty, put forward as an excuse)

#### Power (قوة)

The Arabic word for power (strength) is 'quwah'.

#### Pray

Supplication (say prayers, to entreat).

#### Prayer (صلاة)

There are two words for prayer in Arabic - they are different types of prayer:
(1) Salat - the defined and organised prayer, 5 of which are obligatory daily.
(2) Dua' - unregulated personal supplication to God.

The Arabic True Form shown is of the word Salat.

#### Prayer niche

Altar, adytum (a small place in front part of mosque that the Imam stands there for prayer.)

#### Profound understanding

Jurisprudence, lit. insight, divine law, canonical law [deep, intense understanding (the religious subjects, here), requiring much study or thought].

#### Prophet (نبي)

The Arabic word for Prophet is 'nabi'.

#### Psalms (زبور)

The Psalms are known as the 'Zaboor' in Arabic. They are a revelation from God given to Prophet Dawood (David) (PBUH).

#### Pulpit

Podium, minbar (a raised enclosed platform in a mosque.)

#### punishment

Divine chastisement, torture, torment, suffering (a penalty for an offense, being punished).

#### Punishment, reward

Retribution, reward, recompense (a penalty for an offence).

#### Punishments

Penalties (a punishment for breaking a law, rule, or contract.)

#### Pure (صافي)

The Arabic word for pure is 'safi' or 'tahir' depending on its usage.

#### Purity

state of purity, purification, ritual purity (pureness)

### Q

#### Qabeel (قابيل)

Qabeel, also spelt Qabil, is known as Cain in the bible, and he was the son of Prophet Adam (PBUH). He murdered his brother Habeel (Abel).

#### Qabr (قبر)

Grave.

Old or ancient. In philosophy the word 'Qadeem' when talking about God means 'eternal'.

(1) Qadr means predestination, fate or destiny. In Islam it is a necessary belief to have that God knows the fate of all creatures. It is also believed that people's lives and actions are determined by God (to some extent). Most Muslims believe in a mixture of both fate and free-will for all creatures.
(2) Qadr can also mean power or potential.

There is a Surah (Chapter) in the Quran that is known as Al-Qadr.
In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful
[97.1] Surely We revealed it on the grand night. (The night of Qadr)
[97.2] And what will make you comprehend what the grand night
[97.3] The grand night is better than a thousand months.
[97.4] The angels and Gibreel descend in it by the permission of their Lord for every affair,
[97.5] Peace! it is till the break of the morning.

#### Qahar (قهار)

Qahar means Creator. Al-Qahar, The Creator, is one of the names of God.

#### Qalam (قلم)

A Qalam (pron. Qelem) is either a pen or pencil.
Qalam Hibir = Ink Pen.
Qalam Risas = Pencil.

The Moon.

#### Qanaem(Booties)

Spoils of war, pillage, plunder, booty (profitable advantages of war)

#### Qareeb (قريب)

Qareeb means close, related or soon.

The heart.

#### Qiblah (قبله)

The direction that Muslims pray - facing towards the Kaaba.

The Qiblah used to be Jerusalem (al-Quds) but was later changed to Prophet Muhammed's (PBUH&HP) birth place because Muhammed wished that from Allah and it was granted.

Compasses with directions in little booklets are used to determine the direction of the Qiblah usually, but there also exists many electronic gadgets that are now being produced that do the work of the compass more accurately and with less effort.he direction that Muslims pray - facing towards the Kaaba.

Gambling.

#### Qital (قتال)

Fighting, battle or war.

#### Qiyamah (قيامة)

The act of rising. Specifically, this refers to the Day of Judgement, where we shall all be raised - be resurrected.

#### Qudsi (قدسي)

Qudsi means holy, or pure. There are some reports from the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH&HP) where he relates to the people what God has said or did, but this information is not part of the Qur'an.

While the common factor between hadith qudsi and the Qur'an is that both contain words from Allah which have been revealed to Muhammad (PBUH&HP), the main points of difference between Qur'an and hadith qudsi are as follows:

* In the Qur'an the precise wording is from Allah, while in the hadith qudsi the wording is given by the Prophet Muhammad.
* The Qur'an has been brought to Muhammad (PBUH&HP) only by the Angel Gabriel (AS), while hadith Qudsi may also have been inspired otherwise, such as e.g. in a dream.
* The Qur'an is inimitable and unique, but not so the hadith qudsi.
*

#### Qunoot (قنوت)

Qunoot is raising the hands during prayer to the level of the mouth and making a short dua. This is usually done before the second ruk'a. It is a way to ask Allah for your needs directly inside of salat and it can be said in your native language - not just Arabic.

#### Quran (قرآن)

An Islamic scripture believed by Muslims to be God's (Allah's) revelation to the Prophet Muhammed (PBUH&HP). It is believed to be the exact, unadulterated words of Allah. It is written in Arabic. The word quran is derived from the Arabic verb qaraa (to recite or to read). Commonly written as Koran or Qur'an.

The Qur'an is a Message from Allah to humanity. It was transmitted to us in a chain starting from the Almighty Himself, to the angel Gabriel to the Prophet Muhammed (PBUH&HP). This message was given to the Prophet in pieces over a period spanning approximately 23 years (610 CE to 622 CE). The Prophet (PBUH&HP) was 40 years old when the Qur'an began to be revealed to him, and he was 63 when the revelation was completed. The language of the original message was Arabic, but it has been translated into many other languages.

The Qur'an is one leg of two which form the basis of Islam. The second leg is the Sunnah of the Prophet (PBUH&HP). What makes the Qur'an different from the Sunnah is primarily its form. Unlike the Sunnah, the Qur'an is quite literally the Word of Allah, whereas the Sunnah was inspired by Allah but the wording and actions are the Prophet's. The Qur'an has not been expressed using any human's words. Its wording is letter for letter fixed by no one but Allah.

Prophet Muhammad (PBUH&HP) was the final Messenger of Allah to humanity, and therefore the Qur'an is the last Message which Allah has sent to us. Its predecessors such as the Torah, Psalms, and Gospels have all been superceded. It is an obligation - and blessing - for all who hear of the Qur'an and Islam to investigate it and evaluate it for themselves. Allah has guaranteed that He will protect the Qur'an from human tampering, and today's readers can find exact copies of it all over the world. The Qur'an of today is the same as the Qur'an revealed to Muhammad (PBUH&HP) almost 1400 years ago.

#### Quwah (قوة)

Strength or power.

### R

#### Rab (رب)

Lord or God. There are various spellings in English of this word but they all sound the same.

Lord or Deity.

#### Rabbi (ربي)

Rabbi, pronounced 'rabbee', means 'My Lord'.

See Rabbi.

#### Radhiallahu Anhum (رضي الله عنهم

Radhiallah Anhum (plural) or Rathiallah Anh (singular) means 'May Allah be pleased with them (or him)'. It is often represented by the acronym (RA). It is added after the names of the sahabah (companions) and wives of Prophet Muhammed (PBUH&HP) as a sign of respect.

#### Rahbar (رهبر)

Rahbar is a Farsi (Iranian/Persian) word meaning Leader.

#### Raheem (رحيم)

Al Raheem is a name of God. It means Allah is merciful to the believers.

#### Rahma (رحمة)

Rahma means mercy. One of the names of God is Al-Rahman - the Most Merciful.

#### Rahman (رحمان)

Al Rahman is one of the names of God. It means merciful & beneficent to all His creations.

#### Rajeem (رجيم)

The word rajeem means accursed. Satan, the devil, is often called 'Al-Shaitan al-rajeem' as he is the accursed one.

#### Raka (ركعة)

A Rak'a is a single act of Ruku'. See Ruku.

Ramadhan is a special month in the Islamic calendar. During this month the Muslims refrain from eating and drinking during daylight hours (called fasting [sawm]) and they also seek to improve themselves by sinning less and praying more.

#### Ramadhan Mubarak (رمضان مبارك)

Ramadhan Mubarak is a common greeting phrase that Muslims say to each other during the holy month of Ramadhan. This is the month of fasting. The phrase means: Have a blessed month.

#### Ransom

The release of a captive in return for payment demanded by the captors.

#### Rasool (رسول)

Rasool means Messenger. Prophet Muhammed (PBUH), amongst others, was a Messenger from Allah (God). A Messenger from Allah is a special type of Prophet as he brings a new book/scripture and law (sharia).

#### Rasoolollah (رسول الله)

Rasoolollah means 'Messenger of Allah (God)'. This is one of the titles of a Messenger Prophet - A Prophet who is sent with a Message (usually a scripture) is known as a Rasool (Messenger). You will often find this word in one line of the Adhan - the call to prayer: Ash-hadu ana Muhammadun Rasoolollah - I bear witness that Muhammed is the Messenger of Allah.

#### Reasoning

Stating on , based on reasons (use one's ability to think and draw conclusions).

#### Rebellion

Disobedience (open resistance to authority).

#### Reckoning

Investigation, to look after (counting up, reviewing the one actions for getting atone or be punished)

#### Recompense

Retribution (repay or reward in return for actions).

#### Regulations of Islam

Islamic Law, Islamic commandments, Islamic ordinances, Islamic injunctions (Islamic rules or restrictions)

Authentic traditions (the traditions that is able to relied on).

#### Reliance

Trust (in God), confidence (relying, trust or confidence).

#### Religion (دين)

The Arabic word for 'religion' is 'deen'.

#### Repentance

Penitence, contrition (being regret about what one has done and does not do it again).

#### Representatives

Attorneyship, procuration (a person chosen to represent another or others , or to take part in a legislative assembly on their behalf.).

#### Respect

Blessing (admiration felt towards a person or thing that has good qualities or achievements, showing respect for people's feelings, feel or show respect for.).

#### Respected months

Sanctuary months (Months were given respect according to Islam that fighting is forbidden in them.).

#### Retaliation

Lex talionis, avenge for blood (repay an injury, attack, insult, etc.with a similar one.).

#### Revolt

Rebellion, disobedience (take part in a rebellion, be in a mood of protest or defiance).

See Ribba.

#### Ribba (ربا)

Ribba means 'interest'. Interest is when an individual gives more money back to the lender than originally borrowed. It is forbidden to take interest in Islam.

Person A needs a loan - say £20. He goes to person B and asks him for it. Person B lends him the money but seeks interest at 20% when the person pays him back later. Person A agrees and takes the £20 from B. A month later person A needs to pay back person B, so he gives him back his money (£20) as well as the interest (20% * £20 = £4); So in total he gave £24 to person B, and person B is £4 richer. This is called ribba and is not permitted in Islam.

#### Right (صح)

The Arabic words for right are:
(1) Right, as in "right handed" is 'yameen'.
(2) Right, as in "that's the right answer" is 'sah'.
(3) Right, as in "I have the right to a lawyer" is 'haq'.

The Arabic shown is for (2).

#### Righteous people

Abstemious person (who do what is morally right/justifible.).

#### Rihlah (رحله)

A journey or voyage.

#### Risalah (رساله)

A letter or statement. Some high-end scholars write statements that explain their teachings and ideas in general so that individuals can read them and decide whether to follow them (taqleed).

#### Rizq (رزق)

Rizq is earnings, profit or wealth.

Rooh means Soul.

See Rabb.

See Rooh.

#### Ruku (ركوع)

The ruku' is a form of prostration done in prayer. It is like a half prostration. It is initiated from a standing upright position and it precedes the sujood (complete prostration). The person bends their body forward at the hip and with their outstretched arms they reach to place their hands on their knees. Some words are said "subhana rabbial adheema wa bihamdih" (Most glorious is the Mighty Lord and He is Merciful), then the act is complete and the person rises back to stand in the upright position.The ascii-art stick figure below represents this move. The forward slash represents the arms.

### S

Saad is a letter of the Arabic alphabet. In words it sounds much like the English letter 's' but with more of a whistle sound. One of the Surahs (chapters) of the Quran is called Saad.

#### Sabah (صباح)

Sabah means morning. It is also used as a boy's name.

Good Morning.

#### Sabir (صابر)

(1) A person who is waiting for something to happen is said to be sabir.
(2) Or a person described as being patient at the current moment is said to be sabir.

The person would only be described as saboor if he/she was patient most of the time, or it was a trait of their character.

#### Saboor (صبور)

The word saboor is used to describe someone who is often patient, or patient by nature

#### Sabr (صبر)

Patience.

Charity for the sake of Allah - not the obligatory charity.

Charity. Often, sadaqah is given out of personal reasons to whomever the giver deems suitable, e.g. a local charity shop. Giving sadaqah is given irrespective of the compulsory taxes and doesn't count as zakat - zakat must be payed irrelevent of the amount spent in sadaqah.

#### Sadaqah Jariyah (صدقة جارية)

Sadaqah Jariyah means Continuous Alms/Charity. A continuous charity is an action that someone does that remains active even after the person is dead. For example, if a person digs a well then lots of people can use it and for a very long time - even after the person dies. It is a very effective type of charity that serves better than just giving money as the person who initiated the action will get thawab (plus points) even after he dies.

A popular slogan that explains the concept has been used by different charities in their advert. It goes something like this: "Give a man a fish and he can eat for a day, but give the man a boat and a net to catch fish with then he can feed himself and his family for a life-time."

Sadiq means truthful. It is a popular boy's name.

#### Saeed (سعيد)

The word saeed, also incorrectly written 'sayeed', is a popular boys' name. It means happy.

#### Safi (صافي)

Pure and clear from dirt. Usually this pronoun is applied to innanimate objects like water: Al Maa' al Safi - The pure water.

You may have been looking for the word 'Tahir'.

Correct.

See Sahabah.

#### Sahabah (صحابه)

The sahabah (companions)(RA) are all the Muslims who ever met or saw the Prophet Muhammed (SAW). There were many hundreds of sahabah and they were all very different individuals, coming from all walks of life and varied from the least notable ignorant Bedouin to the most appreciated and respected of his devout followers.

One of the great misconceptions amongst Muslims is that all the sahabah were good people, but in reality a good deal of them were initially enemies of Islam and the Prophet and many had previously killed Muslims. It is necessary to remember that the sahabah are only human and they still continued to commit sins and some were hypocrites of varying degrees.

Sahabah often have the words 'Radhiallah Anh' (May Allah be Pleased with Him) written after their names, and the acronym form is (RA). But this should not be mentioned after the names of any Sahabi willy-nilly because some of them do not deserve it.

#### Saheefah (صحيفه)

This (feminine) word means 'A book'. Sometimes use of this word is meant to refer to the Quran, but it could be any book.

The usual word for book is kitab.

See Sahih.

#### Sahib (صاحب)

Sahib means Friend. It has been used as a boy's name.

#### Sahih (صحيح)

Sound/correct/authentic. Used mainly to refer to hadiths and/or the books they were written in.

#### Sahraa (صحراء)

A Sahra is a desert.

#### Saif (سيف)

Saif means sword, and it is a popular boy's name since it refers to titles of certain special people and their bravery in battle. One person to which the name is attributable is Ali ibn Abi Talib (AS) who used a double-pronged sword called thul-fiqar. Ali was titled saif-ullah (Sword of God) by Prophet Muhammed (SAW). Another person the name could fall upon is Khalid bin Waleed, but the title Saif-ullah was given to him by Abu Bakr, the first Khalif (leader) after Muhammed (SAW).

#### Sajdeh (put forehead on soil)

prostration, adoration (Sajdah is the act of prostration in the Salat, when seven portions of the body touch the earth: the forehead on pure ground, two palms, two knees, and the two big toes. The two Sajdahs together are called sajdatain. ,face downwards)

#### Sajid (ساجد)

The word ٍٍSajid means 'prostrated (in worshipping God)'. It is a popular boy's name.

A variation of this name is sajjad.

Sajjad means '(One who) prostrates (in worshipping God)'. It is a popular boy's name.

A variation of this name is Sajid.

See Salat.

#### Salam (سلام)

Salam means "Peace". It's like saying 'Hi!' - It is the most shortened version of the Islamic greeting (Assalamu Alaikum wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuh) and originates from the hebrew greeting 'Shalom'.

If someone says Salam to you, you should return the greeting by saying Salam back, or Wa Alaikum As-Salam (and upon you be peace).

Abu Hurairah narrated that the Prophet Muhammed (pbuh) said: "Allah created Adam from dust after He mixed the clay and left him for some time until it became sticky mud, after which Allah shaped him. After that Allah left him till it became like potter's clay [a sounding clay]. Iblis used to go past him saying 'You have been created for a great purpose.' After that Allah breathed His spirit into him. The first thing into which the spirit passed was his eye and then his nose. He [Adam] sneezed. Allah said: "May your Lord have mercy upon you, O Adam! Go to those angels and see what they would say.' So Adam went and greeted them. they replied saying: "Peace be upon you and the mercy and blessings of Allah." Allah said: "O Adam! This is your greeting and that of your offspring." (Sahih Bukhari).

This is the origin of saying as-Salamu-Alaykum Wa Rahmatullahi Wa Barakatuh (peace, mercy and blessings be upon you) when we greet each other; as-Salamu-Alaykum is the shorter verion of this. The Prophet Muhammed (SAW) re-established this wonderful tradition among the Muslims.

#### Salat (صلاة)

Prayer. Usually refering to the 5 daily obligatory prayers.

#### Salawat (صلوات)

Salawat is a name given to a popular Islamic phrase. So a person would say 'salawat' aloud in a congregation and they would all say together "Allahuma Salli ala Muhammed wa ala aali Muhammed" (SAW), which means "May Allah send His praise upon Muhammed and upon the Family of Muhammed". This phrase is a type of prayer (dua).

#### Salih (صالح)

Salih (PBUH) was a Prophet who was mistreated by his people. Allah brought his people a miraculous camel but they broke an agreement not to harm it and they slaughtered the animal. Because of this transgression and other rules they broke, they were destroyed by God.
Salih means rightous, and it is a popular boy's name.

#### Sallalahu Alayhi Wa Aale Wa Salam (صلى الله عليه و سلم)

This phrase is often added after mentioning the name of Prophet Muhammed. It is often represented by the acronym (SAWW) or one of its variants. It means 'Allahs praise and peace be upon him and his Ahlulbayte', and it is a means of respect.

#### Salman (سلمان)

Salman is a popular boy's name. Salman al Farsi (RA) was a very respectable companion of Prophet Muhammed (PBUH&HP).span id=

#### Salutation

Greeting, peace , All Peaceable ( Allah's name), (a word or gesture of greeting; an expression of respect.

#### Salvation

Redemption (saving the soul from sin).

Sky or heaven.

#### Samawat (سماوات)

Skys or heavens.

In the Quran the spelling of this word is different to modern Arabic. In the Quran The Heavens appears like so: السموت
The 'ا' (Alif) character is shown floating above the letters to promote correct pronunciation.

#### Sand (رمل)

The Arabic word for sand is ramul.

#### Sarah (ساره)

Sarah is a very popular girls' name. Sarah (RA) is the name of Prophet Abraham's (PBUH) first wife.

#### Satan (شيطان)

The Arabic word for satan is 'Shaitan'.

See Thawab.

#### Sawm (صوم)

Sawm is fasting (refraining from eating, drinking & sex). Fasting during the Holy Islamic month of Ramadhan is one of the 5 pillars of Islam. Muslims fast every day in that month from dawn till dusk - effectively ~15 hours - and is not as difficult as people think. After dusk they can eat, drink and have relations.
Fasting is also done outside of this month and is considered a very good form of voluntary worship in devotion to God. A voluntary fast can last as many days as the person wills, but it must not fall on an eid day.

Fasting isn't just refraining from food and drink. The purpose of fasting is more spiritual than physical and it is a means of devotion to God as well as self-discipline. Fasting purifies and trains the body and soul together. The Quran speaks about fasting:

[2.183] O you who believe! fasting is prescribed for you, as it was prescribed for those before you, so that you may guard (against evil).
[2.184] For a certain number of days; but whoever among you is sick or on a journey, then (he shall fast) a (like) number of other days; and those who are not able to do it may effect a redemption by feeding a poor man; so whoever does good spontaneously it is better for him; and that you fast is better for you if you know.
[2.185] The month of Ramazan is that in which the Quran was revealed, a guidance to men and clear proofs of the guidance and the distinction; therefore whoever of you is present in the month, he shall fast therein, and whoever is sick or upon a journey, then (he shall fast) a (like) number of other days; Allah desires ease for you, and He does not desire for you difficulty, and (He desires) that you should complete the number and that you should exalt the greatness of Allah for His having guided you and that you may give thanks.
[2.186] And when My servants ask you concerning Me, then surely I am very near; I answer the prayer of the suppliant when he calls on Me, so they should answer My call and believe in Me that they may walk in the right way.
[2.187] It is made lawful to you to go unto your wives on the night of the fast; they are an apparel for you and you are an apparel for them; Allah knew that you acted unfaithfully to yourselves, so He has turned to you (mercifully) and removed from you (this burden); so now be in contact with them and seek what Allah has ordained for you, and eat and drink until the whiteness of the day becomes distinct from the blackness of the night at dawn, then complete the fast till night, and have not contact with them while you keep to the mosques; these are the limits of Allah, so do not go near them. Thus does Allah make clear His communications for men that they may guard (against evil).

Fasting in Ramadhan is obligatory for every adult male and female except those that will find it difficult like the old, the pregnant/suckling/menstruating woman, the ill, the mentally handicapped, and the traveller. Islam is a very considerate religion and fasting is easy.
Fasting is very good for the human body as well. It gives the stomach and other organs a rest and alters the blood sugar levels so that excess energy is depleted, and then later renewed. It makes the body lean and the mind open. Fasting is a healthy change to the eating patterns of humans and it is beneficial in many ways.

#### Sayed (سيد)

(1) Sayed means Master or Mr (Mister). Sayed Ali means Mr Ali in most cases.
(2)It is a noble title as most people who have that title before their name are usually religiously educated or rich (or both).
(3) The word sayed is also used as a boy's name. (4) A person is the descendant of Prophet Muhammed (pbuh&hp) through his daughter Fatimah (PBUH).

See Saif.

Bad or not good.

See Sayed.

#### Sayyidna (سيدنا)

Means 'Our Master'. The na on the end attributes the word master to one's-self.

#### Sea (بحر)

The Arabic word for Sea is Bahar.

Legal commands.

#### Self sufficient

The Independent One (Allah's name), (able to provide what one needs without help.)

#### Self-standing

self-subsisting, The Eternal (existing always without beginning or end, unchanging, not affected by time)

#### Semantics

Meanings, Graces ( meaning and connotation in language; of semantics., the branch of linguistics concerned with meanings.)

#### Sermon

Admonition, exhortation, preaching ( a talk on a religious or moral subject, especially one delivered during a religious service.)

#### Shafee (شافي)

Heal.

The Shahadah is a special sentance: La illaha ila Allah wa Muhammadun rasoolollah (There is no (other) Lord except Allah and Muhammed is the Messenger of Allah. This phrase must be pronounced aloud infront of witnesses in order for someone to be initiated as a new Muslim.

Martyr.

#### Shahid (شاهد)

Shahid means 'witness', a person who has or is watching/seeing something. It is a common boy's name.

#### Shaitan (شيطان)

A devil; a helper or aid to Iblees (Satan) or his cause - whether they be human or jinn.

Tree.

#### Shakur (شكور)

Thankful (to Allah).

#### Shalom (شالوم)

Shalom is the greeting word of the Jews. Muslims use an arabic variation of that word to greet each other - Salam. It means Peace.

#### Shams (شمس)

Shams means Sun. It is also a popular girl's name.

Evil.

See Shariah.

#### Shari'a law

Islamic law, religious law, divine law ( according to Islamic law)

See Sheikh.

#### Sheikh (شيخ)

(1) A Man over 40 years old generally, or
(2) A Muslim who is a student of knowledge. Even a new Muslim can be called a Sheikh if he is diligent in seeking the knowledge of Islam based upon Quran and authentic Traditions. He is a Sheikh to those he can teach.
(3) Usually a person is known as a Sheikh when they have completed their undergraduate university studies in Islamic studies and are trained in giving lectures.

The word Sheikh is not to be confused with an Alim (person of knowledge).
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#### Shereek (شريك)

Associate or partner.

#### Shifaa (شفاء)

Healing, treatment, or cure.

#### Shireer (شرير)

Shireer means 'wicked' or 'evil'. It is used like so: 'Innahu Shireer' - He is wicked.

#### Shoaib(شعيب)

Sho'aib is the name of a Prophet (PBUH). It is a popular boy's name and is also spelt 'Shuayb'.

Prophet Sho'aib was sent to the Midianite people and preached to them about God's oneness and to be fair and just to each other and not cheat in trade but they rejected him and his advice so God punished the Midianites with a deadly earthquake.

Window.

#### Shujaa (شجاع)

Brave or courageous.

See Shukran.

Thank you.

#### Shyness

Shame (a painful mental feeling aroused by a sense of having done something wrong or ridiculous.)

See Sawm.

See Ill.

#### Siddeeq (صديق)

Siddeeq (also written Sidiq) means Truthful.

#### Siddeeqah (صديقه)

Siddeeqah (also written siddiqah) is the feminine form of the word Siddiq. It means Truthful.

#### Sifr (صفر)

The number Zero (0) is called Sifr in Arabic.

#### Sirat (صراط)

In the Quran, Allah (God) gives us a Surah (Chapter) to recite every day in our prayers. It is called Al-Fatiha, the opening chapter and it mentions the spiritual sirat.

#### Sister (أخت)

The Arabic word for sister is 'ukhut'. Muslims call Muslim women sisters as the Muslims are like a large family.span id=

See sawm.

#### Sky (سماء)

The Arabic word for sky is 'samaa'.

#### Slaughtering

Sacrificing, ritually slaughtered (the killing of some of animals for food by respecting Shari'a law).

#### Slave (عبد)

The Arabic word for slave is 'abd'.

#### Soomali (صومالي)

A person who is from the country of Somalia.

#### Sooryah (سوريه)

The Arabic word for the country of Syria.

#### Sorry (عفواً)

The Arabic word for sorry is either 'afwen' or 'Al-afoo'.

The Arabic shown is for afwen.

#### Soul (روح)

The Arabic word for soul is 'rooh'.

#### Special capacity

Broad capacity (to expand soul that can understand the other divine worlds.).

#### Speeches

Sermons, Orations ( a long speech, especially of a ceremonial kind)

#### Star (نجمة)

The Arabic word for star is 'najm' (stars) or (singular) 'najmah'.

The true-form shown is for najmah.

#### Strength (قوة)

The Arabic word for strength is quwah.span id=

#### Subhana Rabial Aala (سبحان ربي اللأعلى)

This phrase is said during the 5 daily prayers in the sujood action. When a worshipper places their head on the earth they say this phrase before they rise back to the sitting position. The meaning of the phrase is '(Most) glorious is the Highest Lord'.

#### Subhanah (سبحانه)

Most glorious. Used in referance to Allah (God) in the phraze: Allah subhanah wa tala. Also written subhanahu.

#### Subhanahu Wa Taala (سبحانه و تعالى)

This phraze means 'Pure is He and He is exalted' and it is placed after the name of God like so: Allah (SWT), as a sign of reverence. It is often written as an acronym like so (SWT).

#### Subhanallah (سبحان الله)

Glory be to Allah (God).

#### Sublime

The Exalted, transcendental (of the most exalted, noble, or impressive kind, extreme, lofty).

#### Submission

humility, prostration, act of humility (being submitted, being submissive, obedience)

#### Suhur (سحور)

The Suhur is a light meal eaten before daybreak during the month of Ramadhan. The Prophet Muhammed (PBUH&HP) recommended the believers to observe the suhur, to wake up before the commencing of fasting and eat and drink to put them in good stead to successfully complete the day's fast. If a Muslim misses the suhur, he or she must still fast that day regardless.span id=

#### Sujood (سجود)

The act of bowing down to Allah in worship. It is a necessary act during salat (worship). The hands, knees, feet and the forehead touch the ground.

See Sujood.

#### Sulaiman (سليمان)

Sulaiman (PBUH) is a Prophet of God, known as Solomon in English. Sulaiman is a popular boy's name.

#### Sun (شمس)

The Arabic word for sun is Shams.

#### Sunnah (سنه)

The Sunnah is the ways, teachings and activities of Prophet Muhammed (PBUH&HP)and 12 Imams(PBUT). Muslims should emulate the sunnah of them to be good Muslims.span id=

#### superiority

Virtue, merit (to be in higher position or rank, to be better or greater in some way; of higher quality.)

#### Supplication (دعاء)

Supplication is 'Dua' in Arabic. This is a form of prayer where an individual opens their hands palms-up infront of them and recites either a written (memorized) or personal prayer to God.

#### Sura (سوره)

(1) See Surah.
(2) A picture or image.

The Arabic form shown is for meaning (1), but the spelling of meaning (2) is like so: صوره

#### Surah (سوره)

A Surah is a chapter of the Quran but it is different to what you may understand chapters to be like in normal books. There are 114 surahs in the Quran and they range from being 3 verses to 286 verses in length.

#### Sustenance

Provision (the process of sustaining life by food, food, nourishment).

#### Sweet (حلو)

The Arabic word for sweet (nice) is Hilloo. The candy type of sweet is known as Hallawah.

The Arabic shown is for the nice type of sweet.

#### Syahm (صوم)

Syahm (or siam) is the same as 'sawm'. See Sawm.

#### Syria (سوريه‏)

Official Name: Syrian Arab Republic.
The Arabic name is Sooryah.

Capital: Damascus

### T

#### Taala (تعالى)

Most high. Used in referance to Allah (God) in the phraze: Allah subhanah wa taala.

#### Taawun (تعاون)

Uniting and working together as a group.

#### Tabbat (تبت)

The word tabbat means 'perished' or 'destroyed'.

A certain incident occurred during the life of Prophet Muhammed (PBUH&HP) about 3 years after first receiving revelations from the Angel Gabriel (AS). Muhammed was commanded by God to proclaim the message of Islam publicly, so he walked up a nearby hill near the houses of the Quraish tribe in Mecca and called out to all the people to come.

This raised area was used to warn the towns' people if they were under attack from a nearby tribe or if some other harm was coming their way, so when Muhammed called out to the people he knew they would all be shocked and come running to him to see what was behind the hill.

So they came in a rush and asked him why he had called them. Muhammed asked them 'If I said a large army is about to attack us, then would you believe me?', the people said yes, indeed you are most truthful - we know that you are one of the truthful ones.

Muhammed then explained that there was no such army but he had something important to say, something much more important than an attacking army. Then he began to tell them about the principle beliefs of Islam, of his Prophethood and that he was a Messenger of God sent to stop the people from polytheism and to guide them to the path of the one and only God. The people listened attentively, but not all people took it lightly.

Among the crowd was his uncle Abu Lahab (Father of fire), so called because of his fiery anger and his reddish complexion, and he was very annoyed with what Muhammed had done. He said to Muhammed after listening to the initial few words the Prophet said, 'Is this what you called us out here for?!! May you perish/be destroyed (Tabban laka)'.

Muhammed was surprised by this response and remained silent. God was very angered by the insult and he sent these verses to Muhammed -

Surat Al Masad || The Flame
In the Name of Allah Most Gracious Most Merciful
[111.1] Perdition (Tabbat) overtake both hands of Abu Lahab, and he will perish.
[111.2] His wealth and what he earns will not avail him.
[111.3] He shall soon burn in fire that flames,
[111.4] And his wife, the bearer of fuel,
[111.5] Upon her neck a halter of strongly twisted rope.

Abu Lahab was an avowed enemy to Muhammed from the very beginning and so was his wife, hence the curse upon her too.

#### Tabeeb (طبيب)

A tabeeb is a doctor or physician. Arabs call dentists and vets tabeeb too.

Tabeeb bashary = medical doctor;
Tabeeb baitary = vet;
Tabeeb asnan = dentist;

#### Tabieen (تابعين)

Tabi'een means 'followers'.

#### Tafseer (تفسير)

(1) (Verb) Explaining and understanding a situation or text.
(2) (Noun) A commentary or explanation of something. Usually, the tafseer (commentary) is of the Qur'an or a verse of the Qur'an.

See Tafseer.

#### Tahajjud (تهجد)

Tahajjud is the name of a highly mustahab (recommended) prayer that is performed during the night, before the fajr (morning) prayers. This prayer is often called salat al-layl (the night prayer). In Asian countries this prayer is called namaz al-shab.

#### Taharah (طهاره)

Ritual purity. The word taharah is derived from the word tahir. Example of use: He was in the state of taharah.

#### Tahir (طاهر)

pure/clean/untouched. It is used to refer to that which is ritually pure. It is also a name used for males.

#### Tajweed (تجويد)

Tajweed is either the act of reciting or the actual medium of a special type of recitation of the Quran. It is a beautiful recitation method that employs all the diacritics and rules of recitation in lengthening, shortening and altering sounds of letters so that it results in a wonderful sounding recitation of the Quran. It takes a long time to complete the Quran with proper tajweed and great skill to do it well.

See Tajweed.

#### Takalam (تكلم)

Takalam is an order for someone to speak. Takalami is the feminine form used when speaking to a woman.

#### Takbeer (تكبير)

Takbeer is saying 'Allah Akbar' - Allah (God) is the Greatest.

See Takbeer.

#### Takfeer (تكفير)

The action of claiming a person or a group are kafir.

See Takfeer.

See Taqwa.

See Talaq.

Divorce.

#### Talib (طالب)

Student or someone who requests a thing. E.g. Talibul Ilm, means Requester of Knowledge.

#### Tamr (تمر)

Dates (fruit of the date palm).

#### Taqiyya (تقية)

Dissimulation - to conceal, partially conceal or disguise one's true feelings, beliefs or information when there is threat of death or serious harm and when there is a threat of great evil.

#### Taqleed (تقليد)

Taqleed means 'emulation' or 'copying' another individual. In Islam, Muslims do taqleed of a scholar who they believe preaches the correct thing in fiqh (jurisprudence - religious law). They do this by following his opinions concerning fiqh issues.

See Taqleed.

#### Taqwa (تقوى)

Taqwa is a concept in Islam that is interpreted by some Islamic Scholars as God consciousness. It has many further understandings and interpretations. Taqwa may mean piousness, fear of Allah, love for Allah, and self restraint.

Having Taqwa allows a person to be constantly aware of both God's presence and attributes and a reminder of their relationship and responsibility to God as His creation and servant. The scholars explain that the way to taqwa is through obedience of God, avoiding disobedience, and striving to stay away from doubtful matters.

#### Taraweeh (تراويح)

This is a prayer that is done by Ahlul Sunnah (Sunni Muslims) during the month of Ramadhan and it is done after the isha prayers and before fajr prayers. It is a voluntary deed of worship.

#### Tarvih

optional evening prayer in Ramadan in Sunni school

See Tawheed.

#### Taurat (توراة)

Torah. This is the first 5 chapters/books (Pentateuch - Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy) of the Old Testament and it was revealed to Prophet Moses (AS).

#### Tawaf (طواف)

The circumfering of the Ka'bah seven times. People usually do this during umrah or hajj.

#### Tawakkul (توكل)

The act of relying upon something or someone - to place faith or confidence in Allah (usually).

Repentance.

#### Tawheed (توحيد)

Confirming the Oneness of Allah. It is the basis of Islam.

#### Tayammum (تيمم)

Tayammum is done when there is no water to perform the usual Islamic rites, or there is difficulties concerning the water. Tayammum is done using dust when there is no water for ablution (wudhu) or ghusl (ritual wash).

[Quran 5.6] O you who believe! when you rise up to prayer, wash your faces and your hands as far as the elbows, and wipe your heads and your feet to the ankles; and if you are under an obligation to perform a total ablution, then wash (yourselves) and if you are sick or on a journey, or one of you come from the privy, or you have touched the women, and you cannot find water, betake yourselves to pure earth and wipe your faces and your hands therewith, Allah does not desire to put on you any difficulty, but He wishes to purify you and that He may complete His favor on you, so that you may be grateful.

To do tayammum, you first make the intention, then hit the earth with the palms of both hands together, wipe the forhead with them, starting at the hairline and continuing to the top of the nose and eyebrows. Then, the back of the right hand should be wiped with the left hand from the wrist down to the tips of the fingers. The same should be done to the left hand using the right hand to wipe it.

#### Teacher (معلم)

The Arabic word for teacher is 'mualim'.

#### Terrorism (إرهاب)

The Arabic word for terrorism is Irhab.

#### Test (إمتحان)

The Arabic word for test is imtihan.span id=

#### Thaleb (ثعلب)

A tha'leb is a fox.

#### Thani (ثاني)

This word means 'second' or 'another'.

Also see 'first': Awal;

#### Thank You (شكراً)

Thank you is 'Shukran' in Arabic.

See Thank you.

#### Thawab (ثواب)

When a good action or form of worship is done for the sake of God, you get positive points. These points are known as thawab. If you have more positive points (thawab) than negative points (ithim), then you enter heaven. If not, you enter hell. If your thawab and ithim are equal then you will be in limbo.

Robe or dress.

#### the civil and penal laws of human society

Law dealing with the private rights of citizens, not with crime.

#### the commands regulating actions

orders or restrictions for controlling persons

#### The discussion of generalities and particularities

the discussion of specialties and commonest ( In this discussion a law is expressed as general and then the exclusions will be explained.)

#### The discussion of imperatives

The discussion of injunctions or religious commands (There are many verses in Holy Quran or discussions in narrations as commands or orders that who know the knowledge of " Osul" should answer them clearly. the discussion of essential or obligatory something ).

#### The discussion of negative imperatives

The discussion of religious injunctions (It is another discussion of the knowledge of Osul which shows that the negative imperatives are forbidden or undesirable ....)

#### The discussion of tacit meanings

The discussion of concepts (the discussion of understanding without being put into words)

#### The discussion of the abrogate and the abrogated

The discussion of abrogating and abrogated or cancelled (something has been cancelled, There have been commands in Quran and Sunnah as temporally but they have been abrogated due to coming another commands.)

#### The discussion of the abstract and the clear explained

the discussion of manifest , clear, plain and brief, summary, compendium (discussion of something that express ideas briefly but there are some discussions that explain them clearly)

#### The discussion of unconditional and conditional

the discussion of independent and dependent (this discussion explains conditions that burdened person should make them)

#### The laws and issues of actions

The regulations or ordinances of deeds (religious rite, rules made by religious authority)

#### The missed prayer

the lapsed prayer (The prayer has been failed by forgetfulness, weakness or passing its time.)

#### The prayer of special signs (e.g. earthquakes)

The prayer that is prayed when special divine signs happen.

#### The prayer of the circumambulation of the Ka'bah

The religious circumambulation prayer

#### The prayer offered at the right time

The timely accomplishment prayer (The prayer that has been done on time.)

#### The Principle of Option

the principles of authority, choice (It is a principle which is used when a person is free for choosing one of two things. )

#### The Principle of Precaution

the principles of Reservation (When there is doubt about doing something and there is not clear law- usually it is between the laws that include the minor and do our duty completely. major numbers of deeds such as reading of TASBIHAT- ARBAE,so we should.)

#### the principles for application

the principles for practicable matters (the principles that explain how to put the religious rules to practical use)

#### the principles for deducing

the principles for inference, presumption (the principles that have been extracted of different sources for deducing a law is true or not.)

#### The Principles of Exemption

the principle of acquaintance release (When there is doubt about something  , we should make ourselves exemption of remained duty.)

#### The study of the biography of the Transmitters

The study of the biography of the Transmitters of traditions

#### The study of the Transmitters

The study of the biography of the Transferor of traditions

#### Theology

Divine Matters (It is a science that explains different aspects of divine matters especially Osool-e-Din)

#### Three (ثلاثه)

Three (3) is thalathah in Arabic.

#### Thulfiqar (ذوالفقار)

Thulfiqar is the name of the sword Imam Ali (PBUH) used to fight the infidels with. It was crafted in a speacial and different way to other swords that it had two points (tongues) at it's end.

Child.

#### To (الى)

The English word 'to' can have multiple uses and is especially fluid in use. In Arabic different words are used to represent it within a sentence based on how the sentence is worded and its meaning.
1. "I went to the show" - to is 'ila' here
2. "To sail in a boat is..." - such a sentence is rarely started the same way as the English sentence, but in this case it can be 'li...' or 3. "To bake a cake you..." - 'hatta' (implies a question was asked).

The Arabic true-from shown is the word 'ila'.

#### To bestow

To bounty (to present as a gift, to give a reward or payment as an inducement).

#### To pay tax alms

Alms giving [The word zakat is derived from an Arabic word ‘Zaka’ meaning “purification." It is one of the pillars of Islam. Zakat is an obligatory tax levied by Allah on the wealthy members of the Muslim community so as to take surplus wealth from them and give it to the destitute. Quran emphasizes the fulfillment of the divine formula of Zakat:“Keep up the prayer and pay the poor rate.” (Baqara 2:110)  Zakat is the backbone of the economic system of Islam. It is for the welfare of the unprivileged. Zakat is the blessing of God for the giver as well as for the receiver, as it improves the economy of the nation. Zakat establishes a society on a humanitarian ground.]

#### Tongue (لسان)

The Arabic word for tongue is 'Lisan'.span id=

#### Toonis (تونس)

Toonis (or Tunis) is the Arabic name for the country of Tunisia.

#### Torture, Torment

Divine chastisement, torment, suffering [When a person violate the law of God, that God brings punishment which is called torture. He who created life and death, that He may test which of you is best in deed. He is the mighty, the forgiving." (Quran 67:2)  "No one can die except by God's permission, the terms being fixed as by writing." (Quran 3:145) Life is sacred. "Do not take the life which God has made sacred except in (the course of) justice." (Quran 6:151)]

#### Tortures

Calamities (subject to great pain or anxiety, force out of its natural position or shape).

#### Transgressor, reprobate, impious

A reprobate, a sinner, evil doer, sinner (sinner, a person who breaks Islamic law).

#### Transmitters

The study of the biography of the Transferor of traditions.

#### Trial

Test, temptation (an examination in Allah's court to decide on the levels of believes of persons.)

#### Trustful

true (full of trust or confidence)

#### Trusts

Honesty, Trusteeship, deposit (property legally entrusted to a person with instructions to use it for another's benefit or for a specific )

#### Try (حاول)

The Arabic word for try is 'hawil'.span id=

#### Turbah (تربه)

A small earthen/clay tablet that is often moulded into a square or circular shape. Mainly Shia Muslims place their heads on this in sujood (prostration).

### U

#### Uhud (أحد)

The name of a mountain outside of Madinah. It was the setting of the second war between the Muslims and the pagan tribe of Quraish in 3 A.H. The Muslims lost this war.

See Ukhti.

#### Ukhti (أختي)

Means 'my sister'. The 'i' on the end changes the attributes of the word ukhut (sister) to be yours.

#### Ukhut (أخت)

Means sister. Often the word is appended with an 'i' to be ukhti which means 'my sister'.

#### Ulama (علماء)

Many Alims (Muslim scholars).

#### Ulema (علماء)

Ulema is the plural of Alim.

#### Ulil Azim (أولو العزم)

The phrase "Ulil Azim" roughly translates to The Foremost in Resoluteness, and it is used to describe the five greatest Messengers, Prophets of God: Noah - Abraham - Moses - Jesus - Muhammed (PBUT).

See Umm.

#### Umar (عمر)

In Islamic history, Umar bin Al Khatab is one of the best known companions of Prophet Muhammed (SAW). Umar became the second Khalif (leader) after the death of the Prophet. Many other famous people in history have been known by the name Umar. Umar is a very popular boy's name, sometimes written Omar.

See Ummi.

#### Umm (أم)

(1) Umm means Mother or 'Mother of ...'. For example, 'Umm Ahmed' means Mother of Ahmed. In Arab countries most people are called Umm X, (where X is the name of the first son or daughter,) by people who know them, instead of their official name.
(2) Umm can also mean 'possessor of X', where X can be an attribute or a distinct object. For example the name Umm Kulthoom means 'Possessor of chubby cheeks'.

Also of interest to you may be the word Abu.

Umm Kulthoom was the nickname of one of the daughters of Imam Ali (AS), the Prophet Muhammed's (SAW) cousin.

#### Umm Abiha (ام ابيها)

'The mother of her father'. Prophet Muhammed (SAW) titled his daughter Fatimah (AS) this because she looked after him and cared for him so much.

See Ummah.

#### Ummah (أمه)

An ummah is a community or a people. It is used in reference to the community of Believers or Muslims across the globe because they are brothers and sisters in Islam.

#### Ummi (أمي)

(1) Unlettered or illiterate.
(2) Or, an alternative view, the word ummi refers to 'Umm al-Qura', another name the holy City of Makkah is known for. The 'Ummi Prophet' means the Prophet is a citizen of Umm al-Qura.

See Umrah.

#### Umrah (عمره)

Umrah is an Islamic ritual that is performed at Mecca anytime of the year. It is an optional ritual that is like Hajj. It includes Tawaf 7 times around the Kabah and walking 7 times between the hills of Safa and Marwah.

#### Undertaking

vow,offering,oblation, dedication (promise to Allah to do something due to granting a prayer)

#### Unilateral

contract, one sided (done by or affecting one person or group or country etc. and not another)

#### Urdu (اردو)

Urdu is a language spoken by people in many countries in Asia, especially in India and Pakistan.

This word means Teacher. Another word that means teacher is mualim

#### Usury (lending of money at excessively high interest)

the lending of money at excessively high interest

#### Usury (ربا)

The Arabic word for usury is Ribaa.

#### Uthman (عثمان)

Uthman is a popular boys name. Uthman bin Affan was a companion of Prophet Muhammed (SAW) and became the 3rd khalif (leader of the Muslims) after the death of the Prophet. He was later murdered by unknown assailants and this triggered a troubling set of developments in history.

#### utter striving

Exegesis of divine law on matters of theology and law, striving hard [expansion of the Islamic sciences. By practicing ijtihad, a mujtahid deduces the ahkam (laws) of the Shari'a for issues and problems regarding which there is no specific express text (nass), by relying on legal sources and principles and by benefiting from the ideas of other mujtahidun.]

#### Uzair (عزير)

Uzair (Ezra in English) is a Prophet of God. He was sent to the Jews to re-write the bible for them, and to re-guide them to path of righteousness.

### V

See Wali.

#### Veil (حجاب)

The English word 'veil' is correctly identified as the headscarf, the hijab in Arabic.

#### Verdict

Religious injunction or commandments, judgment, Divine law or command (the decision reached by a jury, a decision or opinion given after examining, testing, or experiencing).

#### Verse (اية)

A verse (often of the Quran) is know as an 'Ayah' in Arabic.

#### Vilify

Calumny, libel (say evil things about).

#### Virgin (عذراء)

The Arabic word for virgin is 'adhra'. The mother of Christ (AS),(PBUH), is called Maryam al-adhra - The Virgin Mary.

#### Virtuous, those who guard (against evil)

God fearing,...(having or showing moral virtue)

### W

#### Wa (و)

(1) "And", eg. wa lillah mulk al samawat (And with Allah is the ownership of the heavens)
(2) "By", eg. wa-llah ([I swear] by Allah)

#### Wa Alaikum Assalam (و عليكم السلام)

When a Muslim is greeted with the word 'salam' or its variants, they should reply Wa Alaikum as-Salam - And upon you be peace.

A deep ditch formed by erosion.

Wadood means loving. One of God's names is 'Al-Wadood' - The Loving (God).

#### Wafat (وفات)

The death or passing-away of someone. For example people will use this word like: 'Today is the wafat of Prophet Muhammed (SAW)'.

The common word for death is mawt.

#### Wahid (واحد)

(1) The numerical value of one (1).
(2) A person.

#### Wajib (واجب)

Obligatory, necessary, mandatory.

Boy.

#### Wali (ولي)

Leader, friend, protector, guardian, supporter, helper, etc. It is a general word that changes meaning depending on the sentance or situation.

#### Walimah (وليمه)

A marriage banquet at the wedding reception.

#### Waliyullah (ولي الله)

Waliyullah is composed of two words: wali and Allah. Together they mean 'Leader from Allah' or 'Leader chosen by Allah'.

#### Wallah (والله)

Wallah or Wallahi means '(I swear) by Allah'. It is used to affirm the conviction of being truthful.

#### War (حرب)

The Arabic word for war is 'harb'.

#### Wardah (ورده)

Flower. This word has been used as a girl's name.

#### Washing (غسل)

The Arabic word for washing is 'ghusl'.

#### Wasiyah (وصيه)

A written will or testament.

#### Watan (وطن)

Nation or country.

If i is added to the end of the word it becomes watani which means My Country.

#### Water (ماء)

The Arabic word for water is Ma'.

#### Wayyak (وياك)

The word wayyak can be used to warn people in a precautionary manner. It can mean 'be careful of' or it can be used in a more aggressive tone to mean '(may) Woe be unto you (if)...'.

#### Wedding (عرس)

The Arabic word for wedding is 'iris'.

#### Wehda (وحده)

(1) The value of 1 (one) in Arabic. (feminine)
(2) A (female) person.

Face.

#### Where (اين)

The Arabic word for 'where' is 'aina'.

The 'a' on the end is a diacritic.

#### White (أبيض)

The English word 'white' is abyadh in Arabic

#### Why (لمذا)

The Arabic word for 'why' is 'limadha'.

#### Wicked

See Evil

Birth or birthday.

#### Wills

Testaments (written directions made by a person for the disposal of his or her property after death).

#### Wiswas (وسواس)

The words and ideas that the Shaitans whisper into a person's heart to tempt them to do sinful things.

The word wiswas is found in the Quran in Surat Al Naas (The People).
-In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful-
[114.1] Say: I seek refuge in the Lord of men,
[114.2] The King of men,
[114.3] The God of men,
[114.4] From the evil of the whisperings of the slinking (Shaitan),
[114.5] Who whispers into the hearts of men,
[114.6] From among the jinn and the men.

#### Witness

example [a person who sees or hears something, a person who gives evidence in a law court, -verb- be a witness at or of; sign( a document) as a witness]

#### Wives (زوجات)

The plural English word 'wives' is 'zawjat' in Arabic.

See Wudhu.

#### Women (نساء)

The Arabic word for women is 'nisaa'.

#### World (عالم)

The Arabic word for world is 'alem'.

#### Worship (عباده)

The Arabic word for worship is 'Ibadah'. The Arabic word for prayer is 'Salat'.

#### Worshipper

Devout (a person who pay respect to Allah, a person who pay worship to Allah.).

#### Worthy, Good work

Righteous, good deeder, wholesome deed (having great merit).

#### wrong-doer

Hypocrite (a person who acts illegally or immorally, a person whose acts and thoughts are different.).

#### Wrongfulness

Void, invalid (contrary to what is fair,just or legal).

#### Wudhu(وضوء)

Wudhu is known as 'ablution' in English. Wudhu is a ceremonial act of washing and wiping the hands, face, arms, head and feet before praying or touching the text of the Quran. Without wudhu those activities would be void and unlawful.

In the Name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful
[5.6] O you who believe! when you rise up to prayer, wash your faces and your hands as far as the elbows, and wipe your heads and your feet to the ankles; and if you are under an obligation to perform a total ablution (ghusl janabah), then wash (yourselves) and if you are sick or on a journey, or one of you come from the privy, or you have touched the women, and you cannot find water, betake yourselves to pure earth and wipe your faces and your hands therewith, Allah does not desire to put on you any difficulty, but He wishes to purify you and that He

See Wudhu.

See Zeinah.

### Y

#### Ya (يا)

The word 'Ya' is often followed by another word like Allah, so 'Ya Allah' means 'O God'. Ya can also mean 'you'.

#### Ya Allah (يا الله)

O Lord or O God. This phraze is uttered when praying in supplication to Allah, amongst other things.

A Jew.

#### Yahya( یحیی )

Prophet Yahya (PBUH), or John the Baptist is one of the Prophets of Islam. He was the son of Prophet Zackariah (PBUH), maternal cousin to Mariam (PBUH), and cousin to Prophet Isa (PBUH). He paved the way for Prophet Isa (Jesus) and also baptized him.

#### Yameen (يمين)

Right - as in the direction.

#### Yantasiroon (ينتصرون)

Yantasiroon comes from the word nasr which means victory. Yantasiroon means 'They (shall) have victory (over)'. An example of its usage is 'Innal mu'mineena sawfa yantasiroona ala qawmi-dhalimeen' - The believers shall have victory over the oppressive nation.

#### Yaqeen (يقين)

Certainty or doubtless conviction.

See Yaqeen.

#### Yaqoob (يعقوب)

Jacob (in English), son of Isaac (Ishaq), the Prophet, was also called Israel which means "Servant of Allah." His grandparents, Abraham and Sarah, were given the tidings of his piety and prophethood. Jacob was the father of Joseph (Yusuf). His 12 sons became the progenitors of the tribes of Israel.

#### Yarhamakallah (يرحمك الله)

Yarhamakallah is a phrase meaning '(may) Allah be gracious towards you'.

Orphan.

#### Yathrib (يثرب)

The old name of the city of Madinah, Saudia Arabia. When the Prophet Muhammed (SAW) went on the Hijrah (emigration from Mecca) to Yathrib, he arrived there and it was renamed Madinah Al Munawarah - The light-filled city - in his honor.

See Yawm.

(The/A) Day.

#### Yawm Al Qiyamah (يوم القيامه)

The day of resurrection. This is Judgement day.

#### yearn

To covet (be filled with great longing)

Hand.

A Jew.

#### Yes (نعم)

The Arabic word for 'yes' is na'am.

See Yateem.

#### You (انت)

The Arabic word for 'you' is 'anta'.

See Yusuf.

#### Yunus (يونس)

Jonah in English. He was Allah's messenger to the people of Ninawa to invite them to the worship of the Only True God.

When they rejected him, he threatened them that punishment would come within three nights. Out of fear of being punished they believed in Allah. Jonah departed his people and later was on board of a sinking ship. After casting lots three times, Jonah was chosen to be thrown in the sea. He was swallowed by a great whale and was disgorged unharmed three days later. He was then sent to more than 100,000 persons calling them to the worship of Allah.

#### Yusuf (يوسف)

Joseph in English. He was the favorite son of Jacob.

Once in a dream he saw eleven stars and the sun and the moon all bowing down to him. He went to his father and told him about his dream. He was happy, but advised his son not to tell his step brothers about that dream. The brothers envied Joseph for his father loved him much more than any of them. They plotted to throw him in a well, and told his father that he had been killed by a wolf. Then, he was picked up by caravans who sold him to the rich Egyptian for a low price. The Egyptian took care of Joseph, but later Joseph was imprisoned. Later, Joseph was released from prison and was appointed administrator of Egypt's grain storehouses which he managed wisely during the years of famine. During this period, Joseph's brothers came to Egypt seeking grain. Joseph made himself known to them and asked them to bring their family, including his father, to Egypt. They came and bowed down to him as a fulfillment of his first dream.

### Z

See Dhabeeha.

#### Zaboor (زبور)

The Zaboor is the Arabic word for the original Psalms scripture revealed to Prophet David (Dawood) (PBUH).

#### Zahraa (زهراء)

Luminous. Often the word zahraa is attributed to the daughter of Prophet Mohammed (PBUH&HP), Fatima (PBUH). It is a popular girl's name.

#### Zain (زين)

Zain means good or best. It is also a boys' name.

#### Zainab (زينب)

Zainab is an old Arab name. It is a very popular girl's name.

See Zakat.

#### Zaki (زكي)

(1) Derived from the word zakat, it is a descriptive word meaning pure or purified.
(2) A descriptive word meaning 'sweet/pure/clean smelling'.

#### Zam Zam (زمزم)

Zam Zam is a the name of a sacred water well in Makkah. People who do Hajj drink from the water of this blessed well.

#### Zameel (زميل)

Companion or friend.

See Dhameer.

See Zam Zam.

#### Zani (زاني)

One who has commited Zina - The act of commiting adultary (if married), or fornication (unmarried).

#### Zaqqum (زقوم)

Zaqqum is a type of tree that grows in hell. It's fruit (A-dhari) resembles the heads of devils and its taste is very bitter. The sinners of hell will be in constant hunger and feel compelled to eat from the fruit which tastes horrible and will boil their bellies like boiling water.

The Holy Quran, Surah 44 (The Smoke)

[44.43] Surely the tree of the Zaqqum,
[44.44] Is the food of the sinful
[44.45] Like dregs of oil; it shall boil in (their) bellies,
[44.46] Like the boiling of hot water.

#### Zawaj (زواج)

Zawaj means marriage. It is another word for Nikkah.

(1) Husband.
(2) Pair.

Wife.

Wives (plural).

See Zeinah.

#### Zeinah (زينه)

A beautiful ornament or decoration, but the word usually refers to jewellry or the beauty of a woman. It is a common name for a girl.

Also spelt Xena, Zena.

Time.

#### Zero (صفر)

The number Zero (0) is called Sifr in Arabic.

See Thikr.

See Thikr.

#### Zina (زنا)

The act of commiting adultary (if married), or fornication (unmarried).

See Dhuha.

#### Zuhr (ظهر)

see Dhuhur.

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